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## A Dialogue on Meditation (A Conversation with Udo Reiter)

### Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker: Major Texts on Religion (2014-01-01): 24 , January 01, 2014

## On the Nature of Medicine

### Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine (2015-01-01) 119: 819-842 , January 01, 2015

The quality of medical practice, research, and education depends considerably on the image medical professionals, researchers, and teachers have of their discipline because that image determines the modes of their professional, scientific, and educational conduct.

## On the Development of Kant’s Transcendental Theology

### Proceedings of the Third International Kant Congress (1972-01-01) 4: 495-500 , January 01, 1972

Transcendental theology, according to Kant, comprises two elements: on the one hand his doctrine of the so-called transcendental ideal, on the other hand the two well-known transcendental proofs of the existence of God, viz. the famous ontological proof of Descartes and the likewise famous argument *a contingentia mundi* of Leibniz and Wolff.

## Quantum Theory and the Nature of Consciousness

### Foundations of Science (2017-06-22): 1-36 , June 22, 2017

Our interest focusses on the idea, that consciousness is a powerful acting entity. Up to now there does not exist a scientific concept for this idea. This is not due to problems within the field of psychology or brain research, but rather in resisting theories of modern physics. That is, why we have to search for a solution in the field of physics. A solution can be found in a new understanding of the basics of physical theory. That could be given by abstract and absolute quantum bits of information (AQI bits). To avoid the popular misunderstanding of “information” as “meaningful” it was necessary to find a new word for the free-of-meaning AQI bits: the AQI bits establish a quantum pre-structure termed “Protyposis” (Greek: “pre-formation”), out of which real objects can be formed, starting from energetical and material elementary particles. The Protyposis AQI bits provide a pre-structure for all entities in natural sciences. They are the basic entities, whereof the physical nature of the brain, on the one hand, and the mental nature of consciousness, on the other hand, were formed during the cosmological and the following biological evolution. A deeper understanding of quantum structures may help to overcome the resistance against quantum theory in the field of brain research and consciousness. The key for an understanding is the concept of Protyposis, which means an abstract quantum information free of any definite meaning. With the AQI bits of the Protyposis, both, massless and massive quantum particles can be constructed. Even quantum information with special meanings, in example grammatically formulated thoughts, eventually could be explained. As long as the fundamental basis of quantum theory is misunderstood as being formed by a manifold of some small objects like atoms, quarks, or strings, the problem of understanding consciousness has no solution. If instead we understand quantum theory as based on truly simple quantum structures, there would be no longer fundamental problems for an understanding of consciousness.

## Historical and philosophical perspectives on quantum chemistry

### Metascience (2013-11-01) 22: 523-544 , November 01, 2013

## The Isolation Principle of Clustering: Structural Characteristics and Implementation

### Acta Biotheoretica (2006-09-01) 54: 219-233 , September 01, 2006

The isolation principle rests on defining internal and external differentiation for each subset of at least two objects. Subsets with larger external than internal differentiation form isolated groups in the sense that they are internally cohesive and externally isolated. Objects that do not belong to any isolated group are termed solitary. The collection of all isolated groups and solitary objects forms a hierarchical (encaptic) structure. This ubiquitous characteristic of biological organization provides the motivation to identify universally applicable practical methods for the detection of such structure, to distinguish primary types of structure, to quantify their distinctiveness, and to simplify interpretation of structural aspects. A method implementing the isolation principle (by generating all isolated groups and solitary objects) is proven to be specified by single-linkage clustering. Basically, the absence of structure can be stated if no isolated groups exist, the condition for which is provided. Structures that allow for classifications in the sense of complete partitioning into disjoint isolated groups are characterized, and measures of distinctiveness of classification are developed. Among other primary types of structure, chaining (complete nesting) and ties (isolated groups without internal structure) are considered in more detail. Some biological examples for the interpretation of structure resulting from application of the isolation principle are outlined.

## Living Machines

### Synthetic Biology (2016-01-01): 47-60 , January 01, 2016

The current developments and (postulated) products in the field of synthetic biology have given rise to numerous metaphors within the discourses on interpretation and plausibility. Apart from the metaphors seeming to be especially ‘prominent’, such as ‘playing God’ or ‘creating life’ (Ried and Dabrock 2011), another ‘player’ appears on the field of strategies of explanation and functionalization: ‘living machines’.

## An Algorithm for General Set Unification and Its Complexity

### Journal of Automated Reasoning (1999-01-01) 22: 45-63 , January 01, 1999

In this paper, an algorithm for set unification – which is a restricted case of the associative-commutative-idempotent (ACI) unification – is presented. The algorithm is able to unify finite sets containing arbitrary terms. It is nondeterministic and can easily be implemented in Prolog. Because of the simplicity of the algorithm, the computation of a single solution is quite fast, and the exact complexity of the algorithm and of the set unification problem itself can be analyzed easily. The algorithm is compared with some other set unification algorithms. All algorithms have single exponential complexity, because the set unification problem is NP-complete, but our exact complexity analysis provides more details. It is shown how the algorithm presented here can be used to solve a generalized set unification problem where sets with tails are admissible. The algorithm can be used in any logic programming language embedding (finite) sets, or in other contexts where set unification is needed, for example, in some unification-based grammar formalisms.

## Carnap’s Relevance Measure as a Probabilistic Measure of Coherence

### Erkenntnis (2017-04-01) 82: 339-350 , April 01, 2017

Tomoji Shogenji is generally assumed to be the first author to have presented a probabilistic measure of coherence. Interestingly, Rudolf Carnap in his *Logical Foundations of Probability* discussed a function that is based on the very same idea, namely his well-known relevance measure. This function is largely neglected in the coherence literature because it has been proposed as a measure of evidential support and still is widely conceived as such. The aim of this paper is therefore to investigate Carnap’s measure regarding its plausibility as a candidate for a probabilistic measure of coherence by comparing it to Shogenji’s. It turns out that both measures (i) satisfy and violate the same adequacy constraints, (ii) despite not being ordinally equivalent exhibit a strong correlation with each other in a Monte Carlo simulation and (iii) perform similarly in a series of test cases for probabilistic coherence measures.

## Ephestia: The Experimental Design of Alfred Kühn's Physiological Developmental Genetics

### Journal of the History of Biology (2000-12-01) 33: 535-576 , December 01, 2000

Much of the early history of developmental and physiological genetics in Germany remains to be written. Together with Carl Correns and Richard Goldschmidt, Alfred Kühn occupies a special place in this history. Trained as a zoologist in Freiburg im Breisgau, he set out to integrate physiology, development and genetics in a particular experimental system based on the flour moth *Ephestia kühniella* Zeller. This paper is meant to reconstruct the crucial steps in the experimental pathway that led Kühn and his collaborators at the University of Göttingen, and later at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes of Biology and Biochemistry in Berlin, to formulate, in their specific way, what later became known as the “one gene – one enzyme hypothesis.” Special attention will be given to the interaction of the different parts of Kühn's *Ephestia*-based project, which were rooted in different research traditions. The paper retraces how, roughly between 1925 and 1945, these elements came to form a mixed experimental set-up composed of genetic, embryological, physiological and, finally, biochemical constituents. Accordingly, emphasis is laid on the development of the terminology in which the results were cast, and how it reflected the hybrid state of an experimental system successively acquiring new epistemic layers.