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## Verdinglichung. Eine anerkennungstheoretische Studie (Reification. A Recognition-Theoretic Study)

### Ethical Theory and Moral Practice (2006-04-01) 9: 237-242 , April 01, 2006

## Approach for Qualitative Validation Using Aggregated Data for a Stochastic Simulation Model of the Spread of the Bovine Viral-Diarrhoea Virus in a Dairy Cattle Herd

### Acta Biotheoretica (2006-09-01) 54: 207-217 , September 01, 2006

Qualitative validation consists in showing that a model is able to mimic available observed data. In population level biological models, the available data frequently represent a group status, such as pool testing, rather than the individual statuses. They are aggregated. Our objective was to explore an approach for qualitative validation of a model with aggregated data and to apply it to validate a stochastic model simulating the bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (BVDV) spread within a dairy cattle herd. Repeated measures of the level of BVDV-specific antibodies in the bulk-tank milk (total milk production of a herd) were used to summarise the BVDV herd status. First, a domain of validation was defined to ensure a comparison restricted to dynamics of pathogen spread well identified among observed aggregated data (new herd infection with a wide BVDV spread). For simulations, scenarios were defined and simulation outputs at the individual animal level were aggregated at the herd level using an aggregation function. Comparison was done only for observed data and simulated aggregated outputs that were in the domain of validation. The validity of our BVDV model was not rejected. Drawbacks and ways of improvement of the approach are discussed.

## Luxus Consumption: Wasting Food Resources Through Overeating

### Agriculture and Human Values (2006-03-01) 23: 63-74 , March 01, 2006

In this paper, we redefine the term luxus consumption to mean food waste and overconsumption leading to storage of body fat, health problems, and excess resource utilization. We develop estimates of the prevalence of luxus consumption and its environmental consequences using US food supply, agricultural, and environmental data and using procedures modeled after energetics analysis and ecological footprint analysis. Between 1983 and 2000, US food availability (food consumption including waste) increased by 18% or 600 kcal (2.51 MJ) per person. This luxus consumption required 0.36 hectares (ha) of land and fishing area per capita, 100.6 million ha for the US population, and 3.1% of total US energy consumption. Luxus consumption increased more for particular foods, such as high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), 22% of which was used in carbonated beverages. As an example, the luxus consumption of sweetened soda, 31.8 l per capita, used 0.8% of the US corn crop (230,555 ha of land); 33.6 million kg of nitrogen fertilizer; 175,000 kg of Atrazine herbicide; 34 million kg of nitrogen fertilizer; 2.44 trillion kcal (10.2 PJ) for production inputs and post-harvest handling; and led to 4.9 million metric tons of soil erosion. Diet soft drink luxus consumption was 43.9 l/capita. Assuming half of US soft drink luxus consumption was bottled in plastic, the energy cost for plastics would have been 2.49 trillion kcal (10.4 PJ) in 2000. Total HFCS availability above baseline in 2000 required 4.6 times the resources used for soft drinks alone. This analysis suggests the utility and applicability of the concept of luxus consumption to environmental analysis and for estimating the effects of excess food utilization.

## The Isolation Principle of Clustering: Structural Characteristics and Implementation

### Acta Biotheoretica (2006-09-01) 54: 219-233 , September 01, 2006

The isolation principle rests on defining internal and external differentiation for each subset of at least two objects. Subsets with larger external than internal differentiation form isolated groups in the sense that they are internally cohesive and externally isolated. Objects that do not belong to any isolated group are termed solitary. The collection of all isolated groups and solitary objects forms a hierarchical (encaptic) structure. This ubiquitous characteristic of biological organization provides the motivation to identify universally applicable practical methods for the detection of such structure, to distinguish primary types of structure, to quantify their distinctiveness, and to simplify interpretation of structural aspects. A method implementing the isolation principle (by generating all isolated groups and solitary objects) is proven to be specified by single-linkage clustering. Basically, the absence of structure can be stated if no isolated groups exist, the condition for which is provided. Structures that allow for classifications in the sense of complete partitioning into disjoint isolated groups are characterized, and measures of distinctiveness of classification are developed. Among other primary types of structure, chaining (complete nesting) and ties (isolated groups without internal structure) are considered in more detail. Some biological examples for the interpretation of structure resulting from application of the isolation principle are outlined.

## First Lessons: Gilles Deleuze and the Concept of Literature

### Literature and Philosophy (2006-01-01): 13-23 , January 01, 2006

For students of literature — beginners or old hands — the obligatory detour through theory and philosophy has always been dangerous. This is not simply because of the importance that Continental thought and philosophy have assumed in the past forty years in literary studies; generations of readers had to maneuver through the philosophical influences of aesthetic theory, for example, before the arrival of Derrida and the philosophical tradition he represented. It is, rather, the negotiation between disciplines that makes this passage difficult. Tied to the beginner’s question of why such a move through another discipline rather than one’s own is the more practical one: how can philosophy say something about literature and vice versa? How can one tradition, with its concepts, problems and history possibly help us understand another? Framing the question in these terms — in terms of the question ‘How?’ — is a practical move. Such a manner of approaching the question might cause more than one reader to grimace, since, after all, from the point of view of the education world, practical questions seem always to be the best way to put an end to studies in literature and philosophy. So often, the practical question of students echoes that of their parents (who pay the bill for such practically minded students’ education) and administrators: How can something as quaint as literature and philosophy be of any use to us today?

## Adaptive Contouring with Quadratic Tetrahedra

### Scientific Visualization: The Visual Extraction of Knowledge from Data (2006-01-01): 3-15 , January 01, 2006

### Summary

We present an algorithm for adaptively extracting and rendering isosurfaces of scalar-valued volume datasets represented by quadratic tetrahedra. Hierarchical tetrahedral meshes created by longest-edge bisection are used to construct a multiresolution *C*^{0}-continuous representation using quadratic basis functions. A new algorithm allows us to contour higher-order volume elements efficiently.

## The Creationism of Leonardo Coimbra and Saudade as a Moral Gift

### Logos of Phenomenology and Phenomenology of the Logos. Book Two (2006-01-01) 89: 357-370 , January 01, 2006

## EXTENSIONALITY, ATTRIBUTES, AND CLASSES (1958)

### THE LIMITS OF LOGICAL EMPIRICISM (2006-01-01) 334: 233-236 , January 01, 2006

In *Principia Mathematica*, an extensional system embodying the theory of types, Peano’s postulate qdistinct (natural) numbers have distinct (immediate) successors” is not formally derivable from purely logical axioms. The axiom of infinity (“the number of individuals is infinite”) is required for the proof that there is no finite cardinal *n*such that *n* equals *n*+1. Russell argued as follows:1 if only n individuals existed, then the number *n* + 1, being defined as the class of all classes that have *n* + 1 members (or that would have exactly *n* members if exactly one element were withdrawn from them), would be equal to the null class; for in that case no classes with *n* + 1 members would exist. But by parity of reasoning, the successor of *n*+1 would also be equal to the null class; therefore *n* and *n*+1, which on the hypothesis made are distinct numbers, would have the same successor. The usual reaction to this argument is that, without abandoning Russell’s conception of numbers as classes of similar classes, we fortunately do not need to postulate the axiom of infinity after all. For there are other ways of solving the logical paradoxes besides the theory of types, and once our constructive efforts are unimpeded by the latter, we can construct an infinite sequence of abstract entities without presupposing the existence of a single concrete individual: the null class, the unit class whose only member is the null class, the class whose members are the foregoing two classes, and so on. And once we have an infinite set of such abstract, though typically impure, entities, we can rest assured that no natural number will collapse into the null class. This is the approach of set theory, where such ghostly classes as the one just mentioned can be postulated to exist provided their definitions do not give rise to contradiction. However, I would like to re-examine Russell’s argument in order to see whether it isperhaps possible to get rid of the axiom of infinity without abandoning the (simple) theory of types.^{2}

## Existence, constructivism, models, modalities

### Signs of logic (2006-01-01) 329: 181-216 , January 01, 2006

## Inductive Incompleteness

### Philosophical Studies (2006-03-01) 128: 109-135 , March 01, 2006

Nelson Goodman cast the ‘problem of induction’ as the task of articulating the principles and standards by which to distinguish valid from invalid inductive inferences. This paper explores some logical bounds on the ability of a rational reasoner to accomplish this task. By a simple argument, either an inductive inference method cannot admit its own fallibility, or there exists some non-inferable hypothesis whose non-inferability the method cannot infer (violating the principle of ‘negative introspection’). The paper discusses some implications of this limited self-knowledge for the justifiability of inductive inferences, auto-epistemic logic, and the epistemic foundations of game theory.