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## Assessing the saving potential of blind controller via multi-objective optimization

### Building Simulation (2009-09-01) 2: 175-185 , September 01, 2009

This paper presents the results of computational experiments where multi-objective algorithms were used to tune a controller for blind movements in a residential building and a room of the LESO (Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory) experimental building. The blind controller, which is based on fuzzy logic, was optimized not only in terms of energy consumption but also in terms of thermal comfort. The goal is to show saving potential for intelligent blind controller in a real world example rather than in tailored idealized test rooms. Therefore, a state of the art simulation program with a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm was combined. It was found that with elementary control systems, like schedules for the lighting in a building, almost 40% of the energy could be saved. With the help of more advanced controllers this can be further increased. Also discussed in this paper are the results and the feasibility of implementing such a controller.

## Simulation and experimental improvement on a small-scale Stirling thermo-acoustic engine

### Frontiers in Energy (2016-03-01) 10: 37-45 , March 01, 2016

Compared with the traditional engines, the thermo-acoustic engines are relatively new and can act as the linear compressors for refrigerators. Many institutes have shown great interest in this kind of machine for its absence of moving mechanical part. In this paper, the influence of the dimensions of the main parts of the smallscale Stirling thermo-acoustic engine was numerically simulated using a computer code called DeltaEC. The resonator and the resonator cavity were found to be the most convenient and effective in improving the performance of the engine. Based on the numerical simulation, a small-scale Stirling thermo-acoustic engine were constructed and experimentally investigated. Currently, with a resonator length of only 1 m, the working frequency of the engine was decreased to 90 Hz and the onset temperature difference was decreased to 198.2 K.

## Self-organizational Aspects and Adaptation of Agent Based Simulation Based on Economic Principles

### Advances in Systems Science (2014-01-01) 240: 463-472 , January 01, 2014

The agent-oriented approach is one of most frequently used techniques for complex system simulation today. This paper is investigating application of multi-agent system consisting of four basic types of agents for creating virtual economy environment for further testing and research in areas of multi-agent coordination and self-organization. Although the proposed system is in several aspects simplified, for example banking sector and government are not included into model, it provides useful basis for research of adaptation mechanisms, manufacturing management, supply chain management, and customer behaviour modelling. Individual goals and strategies are forming collective effort of pursue of given goals, respecting constraints and limitations set on level of the whole agent community. Our goal is to design a system consisting of agents capable of self-organization into structures allowing processing of resources in the given environment and creating production and supply chains with maximum efficiency possible.

## Simulation of Industrial Manipulators Based on the UDU T Decomposition of Inertia Matrix

### Multibody System Dynamics (2003-02-01) 9: 63-85 , February 01, 2003

The *UDU*^{T} – *U* and *D* are respectively the upper triangular and diagonal matrices – decomposition of the generalized inertia matrix of an *n*-link serial manipulator, introduced elsewhere, is used here for the simulation of industrial manipulators which are mainly of serial type. The decomposition is based on the application of the Gaussian elimination rules to the recursive expressions of the elements of the inertia matrix that are obtained using the Decoupled Natural Orthogonal Complement matrices. The decomposition resulted in an efficient order *n*, i.e., *O*(n), recursive forward dynamics algorithm that calculates the joint accelerations. These accelerations are then integrated numerically to perform simulation. Using this methodology, a computer algorithm for the simulation of any *n* degrees of freedom (DOF) industrial manipulator comprising of revolute and/or prismatic joints is developed. As illustrations, simulation results of three manipulators, namely, a three-DOF planar manipulator, and the six-DOF Stanford arm and PUMA robot, are reported in this paper.

## Preventive Maintenance and Joint Buffer Inventory for Parallel Machines

### Perspectives from Europe and Asia on Engineering Design and Manufacture (2004-01-01): 405-416 , January 01, 2004

This paper presents an approach for jointly optimizing buffer inventory and preventive maintenance. Due to the complexity of the mathematical model, experimental design is used in order to determine the optimal values of the decision variables, namely, the maintenance periodicity and the inventory level. We have also proposed a decomposition method for the case of parallel machines. By including the value of the scale coefficient beta in our cost equations, we have determined a model able to adapt itself to numerous machines.

## A simulation model for designing the automation of future’s factory

### Organizing the Extended Enterprise (1998-01-01): 231-242 , January 01, 1998

The factory of the future is going to have a high, but not full, degree of automation.

There are three reasons for that. First, no great level of automation is compatible with required flexibility and polyvalence of the processes, regarding the very frequent coming new product versions and changes. The second reason is that product/process integrated evolution is an endless task, and excessive automation could inhibit significative ideas for improvement. And finally, the third one is that the organizational model that advanced technology suggests must be affordable and “resonant” with it. In other words, technology is an “excitation” wave for changing the current organization.

Then, the intention of a manufacturing strategy today is to decide and follow the most convenient degree of automation compatible with flexibility, polyvalence and “the current to desired” organisational model.

## Design of Digital PLC Experimental Teaching System

### Engineering Education and Management (2012-01-01) 112: 361-366 , January 01, 2012

This paper discusses a kind of method that computer simulates the control objects and status for the shortcomings of poor visibility and intuitive of the control process and small pilot project in PLC experimental teaching of college. In Kingview and Siemens S7-200 as a platform, Simulation Teaching System of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control is designed. It achieves experiment simulation and real-time monitoring of the PLC control, saves investment cost and shortens the development cycle, and improves the teaching effectiveness.

## Effects of geometry on the sound field in atria

### Building Simulation (2017-02-01) 10: 25-39 , February 01, 2017

The atria in commercial buildings are widespread. However, the sound environment has not been given sufficient consideration. Geometry affects the acoustics in the atria. The concept of geometry in this paper includes five parameters, namely, length (*l*), height (*h*), aspect ratio of length to width (*l/w*), skylight form and slope, to provide suggestions for the acoustic environment design in atria. A series of computer models are simulated to analyse the effects of the form parameters on the acoustic environment, such as sound pressure level (SPL) and reverberation time (*T*_{30} in this paper). The results indicate that with an increase in the length or height, the values of the average SPL decrease, and the trends of the curves are logarithmic. For an increasing length, the *T*_{30} increases first sharply and then slowly. With the scattering increasing, the increment of the *T*_{30} is smaller. For an increasing height, the changes of *T*_{30} are determined by the absorption and scattering. In terms of the aspect ratio of *l/w* increasing for a given volume and area, the average SPL values approximately decrease linearly; furthermore, the *T*_{30} decreases unless the atrium is extremely high. The *T*_{30} is the longest for a flat skylight compared to that of other forms, and it is shorter when the skylight has a slope, including either a single or a double-pitch skylight. It can decrease nearly by 40% when the angle of the lean-to skylight is 7°. The *T*_{30} is lower and the amount of decrease is considerably smaller for an increasing slope. When the absorption is evenly distributed in the atria, the skylight has minimal effect on the average SPL or *T*_{30} values. Additionally, the classical formula can approximately calculate the SPL distribution unless the atrium is in a form of long space. The Arau-Purchades formula is generally appropriate to predict *T*_{30} with uneven absorption distributions unless the absorption or scattering coefficient is low.

## On the Relevance of Long Term Correlation in MPEG-1 Video Traffic

### Broadband Communications (1996-01-01) , January 01, 1996

Variable Bit Rate, *VBR*, video is expected to become increasingly important with the large scale deployment of Broadband-Integrated Services Networks, *B-ISDNs*, over the next few years. Although the modeling of VBR video sources has recently received significant attention, there is currently no widely accepted model which lends itself to mathematical analysis. Furthermore, new video compression standards, such as the *MPEG* family, are emerging. On the basis of results of a detailed statistical analysis of a long sample of a movie encoded with the MPEG-1 algorithm, an analytically tractable model is developed and analyzed in detail. The model is able to capture both the distributional and temporal characteristics of this kind of traffic. The model was validated using a two-hour long sequence generated by the MPEG coding of the movie “Star Wars”. We show that our model is a flexible tool to study network issues such as bandwidth allocation and statistical multiplexing.

## Dynamic simulation of two sailing boats in match racing

### Sports Engineering (2004-09-01) 7: 139-152 , September 01, 2004

This paper describes current progress made towards the realization of a match-racing simulator. The aim of the project is to be able to simulate and to modify typical situations while introducing quantifiable data for strategic and tactical analysis. The fundamental model consists of six fully coupled equations of the dynamics of two boats. The largest possible number of variables is taken into account, even though some are initially approximations. The influences of the three attitude angles on the hydrodynamic forces are taken into account using the ‘experiment planning method’ applied to towing-tank tests. For the aerodynamics, empirical models (for example IMS) are adopted. The interaction between the two boats is obtained by representing the sail perturbation by means of a single horseshoe vortex and a self-preserved viscous plane wake. The simulator has a modular structure, which allows the progressive improvement of each part as studies and knowledge advance. Comparisons with calculations of three-dimensional flows and with wind tunnel measurements validate the interaction model. The results presented show a satisfactory agreement with the polar velocity diagram available for the studied boat, even if more reliable trials at sea are needed, with measurements of boat behaviour, wind and sea state. Simulations allow us to quantify the relative influence of model coefficients on boat behaviour. Thus it is possible to identify which factors must be improved first. Tacking simulations are used to illustrate this possibility. To conclude, an example of the practical use of the simulator is presented by comparing two tactical scenarios for the final part of the upwind leg.