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## Sinusoszillatoren

### Elemente der angewandten Elektronik (2001-01-01): 206-213 , January 01, 2001

### Zusammenfassung

Eine elementare Schaltung zur Schwingungserzeugung zeigt *Bild 1a*. Sie besteht aus einer dreigliedrigen RC-Kette, einem Spannungsfolger (OP1) und einem nachgeschalteten invertierenden Verstärker (OP2), dessen Ausgang auf den Eingang der RC-Kette rückgekoppelt wird. Trennt man diese „Ringschaltung“ an der gestrichelten Stelle auf, so erhält man für den offenen Ring die „Schleifenverstärkung“:
$${\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle-}$}}{V} _s} = \frac{{{{\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle-}$}}{U} }_2}}}{{{{\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle-}$}}{U} }_1}_1}} = {\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle-}$}}{A} _u}\cdot1\cdot\left( { - {R_f}/{R_N}} \right)\;und\;speziell\;{\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle-}$}}{V} _s} = - \frac{1}{{29}}\cdot1\cdot\left( { - {R_r}/{R_N}} \right){\mkern 1mu} f\ddot u \leqslant r\;\Omega = \frac{1}{{\sqrt 6 }}\;bzw.\;\omega = \frac{1}{{\sqrt 6 \;RC}}$$
.

## Ingenieur- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften

### Ingenieur- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften (2001-01-01) , January 01, 2001

## Audiovisual bimodal mutual compensation of Chinese

### Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences (2001-02-01) 44: 19-26 , February 01, 2001

The perception of human languages is inherently a multi-modal process, in which audio information can be compensated by visual information to improve the recognition performance. Such a phenomenon in English, German, Spanish and so on has been researched, but in Chinese it has not been reported yet. In our experiment, 14 syllables (/ba, bi, bian, biao, bin, de, di, dian, duo, dong, gai, gan, gen, gu/), extracted from Chinese audiovisual bimodal speech database CAVSR-1.0, were pronounced by 10 subjects. The audio-only stimuli, audiovisual stimuli, and visual-only stimuli were recognized by 20 observers. The audio-only stimuli and audiovisual stimuli both were presented under 5 conditions: no noise, SNR 0 dB, −8 dB, −12 dB, and −16dB. The experimental result is studied and the following conclusions for Chinese speech are reached. Human beings can recognize visual-only stimuli rather well. The place of articulation determines the visual distinction. In noisy environment, audio information can remarkably be compensated by visual information and as a result the recognition performance is greatly improved.

## An accurate stress analysis model for angle-ply laminates with weakly bonded layers

### Acta Mechanica (2001-09-01) 150: 161-178 , September 01, 2001

### Summary

This paper presents a shear slip model suitable for the analysis of angle-ply composite laminated plates with weakly bonded layers. Being an extension of a relevant model that deals with perfectly bonded laminates, this study accounts further for the effects of shear slip by introducing appropriate interfacial bonding conditions. Accordingly, the model is based on a general five-degrees-of-freedom displacement field which includes certain general shape functions of the transverse co-ordinate. These are determined by means of appropriate three-dimensional elasticity considerations and include information relevant to the interfacial constitutive relations that account for weak bonding between layers. In dealing with weakly bonded angle-ply laminated plates in cylindrical bending, a closed form solution which is independent of the imposed boundary edge conditions is obtained. As a special case, the corresponding cross-ply laminated, weakly bonded plates solution is obtained by letting all the lamination angles involved to take 0° or 90° values. The high accuracy of the present model is shown by means of numerical comparisons with corresponding results based on an exact elasticity solution obtained for simply supported laminates. The effects of shear slip on the response of angle- and cross-ply laminated plates subjected to different edge boundary conditions are finally studied by means of corresponding numerical results that are obtained, presented and discussed.

## Deregulation of the Electricity Supply Industry

### Operation of Restructured Power Systems (2001-01-01): 1-27 , January 01, 2001

During the nineties decade, many electric utilities and power network companies world-wide have been forced to change their ways of doing business, from vertically integrated mechanisms to open market systems. The reasons have been many and have differed over regions and countries.

## Zero-Crossings of Random Processes with Application to Estimation and Detection

### Nonuniform Sampling (2001-01-01): 393-437 , January 01, 2001

The origin of Rice’s formula for the average level-crossing rate of a general class of random processes can be traced back to his 1936 notes on “Singing Transmission Lines,” [35]. For a stationary, ergodic, random process {*X(t)*} , -∞ < *t* < ∞, with sufficiently smooth sample paths, the average number of crossings about the level *u*, per unit time, is given by Rice’s formula [36]
(1)
$$
E\left[ {D_u } \right] = \int_{ - \infty }^\infty {\left| {x'} \right|p\left( {u,x'} \right)dx'}
$$
where *p*(*x*, *x’*) is the joint probability density of the *X(t)* and its mean-square derivative *X’*(*t*), and Du is the number of u level-crossings of {*X(t)*} for t in the unit interval [0,1]. Rice’s formula is quite general in nature, and as we shall see, has a simplified form when the process is Gaussian.

## Front Matter - Maschinenelemente

### Maschinenelemente (2001-01-01) , January 01, 2001

## Geometric tolerance verification using superquadrics

### IIE Transactions (2001-12-01) 33: 1109-1119 , December 01, 2001

Standards for Geometric Tolerance Verification such as ANSI Y14.5 have been in practice for many years. These standards were developed for hard gage technology, and provide little guidance for how tolerances should be verified for flexible technologies such as coordinate measuring machines or laser scanners. As a result, most techniques used in practice do not make use of proper statistical analysis of results. We present a statistically-based technique using jackknifing for geometric tolerance verification. The techniques are constructed for the superquadric parametric model representation, but are applicable to any parametric representation. The techniques are illustrated by examples, and a simulation study is provided for comparison.

## Gimbal Suspension Gyro: Stability, Bifurcation, and Chaos

### Journal of Dynamical and Control Systems (2001-07-01) 7: 339-351 , July 01, 2001

In this paper the solutions of three problems, devoted to the investigation of the dynamics of balanced gimbal suspension gyro (GSG) which is installed at the immovable base are presented. In the first problem the stability of stationary motion (SM) of the GSG is analyzed under which the planes of the internal and external rings of GSG are orthogonal. The moment of viscous friction and the moment which is the function of the deviation angle of the internal ring act on the external axis. The analysis of stability of SM is carried out by means of construction of Lyapunov's function with the estimation of the attraction domain. In the second problem the mechanism of the stability loss of the SM under the transfer of the bifurcational parameter through the critical value is presented. In this case the periodic motion originates (Andronov-Hopf bifurcation). The orbital stability condition of the periodic motion is found The third problem investigates the forced vibration of the GSG under the action on the internal ring of the perturbed moment which is the sum of the small moment of viscous friction and moment with small amplitude and fixed frequency. Here we consider the case where the projection of the angular moment on the axis of the external ring is equal to zero. In case of absence of the perturbations the SMs under which the external and internal rings are orthogonal or lie in the common plane are stable and unstable, respectively. For the unperturbed system the equation of the separatrix which passes through the hyperbolic points is found. For the determination of the condition of intersection of the separatrices in the perturbed system, the distance between them is calculated (Melnikov's distance). In the space of parameters the domain in which this distance can change the sign is distinguished and it is the feature of the chaotic motion arising.

## A Framework for Evaluating Commonality

### Design for Configuration (2001-01-01): 169-184 , January 01, 2001

The issue of product families and product platforms have gained an increased interest both in academia and industry. The concept of commonality is often mentioned within this framework. However, commonality may occur at different levels of abstraction, commonality of functions or parts, and at different levels of detail, commonality of modules or parts. This paper presents a literature survey of related research on product families, product structuring and measurements associated to those areas, in order to clarify what to consider when measuring commonality. The result is a framework for measuring commonality. Firstly, there is a need to clarify the kind of commonality measured, that is, on what architectural and structural level (level of abstraction and level of detail) is the commonality measured. Secondly, there is also a need to clarify what reference that is used for calculating the commonality. The concepts of product family commonality and product variant commonality are introduced to distinguish the reference for calculating the commonality.