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## Front Matter - Computers Helping People with Special Needs

### Computers Helping People with Special Needs (2014-01-01): 8547 , January 01, 2014

## A formal proof of the ε-optimality of absorbing continuous pursuit algorithms using the theory of regular functions

### Applied Intelligence (2014-10-01) 41: 974-985 , October 01, 2014

The most difficult part in the design and analysis of Learning Automata (LA) consists of the formal proofs of their convergence accuracies. The mathematical techniques used for the different families (Fixed Structure, Variable Structure, Discretized etc.) are quite distinct. Among the families of LA, Estimator Algorithms (EAs) are certainly the fastest, and within this family, the set of Pursuit algorithms have been considered to be the pioneering schemes. Informally, if the environment is stationary, their *ε*-optimality is defined as their ability to converge to the optimal action with an arbitrarily large probability, if the learning parameter is sufficiently small/large. The existing proofs of all the reported EAs follow the same fundamental principles, and to clarify this, in the interest of simplicity, we shall concentrate on the family of Pursuit algorithms. Recently, it has been reported Ryan and Omkar (J Appl Probab 49(3):795–805, ) that the previous proofs for *ε*-optimality of all the reported EAs have a common flaw. The flaw lies in the condition which apparently supports the so-called “monotonicity” property of the probability of selecting the optimal action, which states that after some time instant *t*_{0}, the reward probability estimates will be ordered correctly *forever*. The authors of the various proofs have rather offered a proof for the fact that the reward probability estimates are ordered correctly *at a single point of time* after *t*_{0}, which, in turn, does not guarantee the ordering *forever*, rendering the previous proofs incorrect. While in Ryan and Omkar (J Appl Probab 49(3):795–805, ), a rectified proof was presented to prove the *ε*-optimality of the Continuous Pursuit Algorithm (CPA), which was the pioneering EA, in this paper, a new proof is provided for the Absorbing CPA (ACPA), i.e., an algorithm which follows the CPA paradigm but which artificially has absorbing states whenever any action probability is arbitrarily close to unity. Unlike the previous flawed proofs, instead of examining the monotonicity property of the action probabilities, it rather examines their submartingale property, and then, unlike the traditional approach, invokes the theory of Regular functions to prove that the probability of converging to the optimal action can be made arbitrarily close to unity. We believe that the proof is both unique and pioneering, and adds insights into the convergence of different EAs. It can also form the basis for formally demonstrating the *ε*-optimality of other Estimator algorithms which are artificially rendered absorbing.

## Towards evolvable Internet architecture-design constraints and models analysis

### Science China Information Sciences (2014-11-01) 57: 1-24 , November 01, 2014

There is a general consensus about the success of Internet architecture in academia and industry. However, with the development of diversified application, the existing Internet architecture is facing more and more challenges in scalability, security, mobility and performance. A novel evolvable Internet architecture framework is proposed in this paper to meet the continuous changing application requirements. The basic idea of evolvability is relaxing the constraints that limit the development of the architecture while adhering to the core design principles of the Internet. Three important design constraints used to ensure the construction of the evolvable architecture, including the evolvability constraint, the economic adaptability constraint and the manageability constraint, are comprehensively described. We consider that the evolvable architecture can be developed from the network layer under these design constraints. What’s more, we believe that the address system is the foundation of the Internet. Therefore, we propose a general address platform which provides a more open and efficient network environment for the research and development of the evolvable architecture.

## Fuzzy XPath Queries in XQuery

### On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2014 Conferences (2014-01-01) 8841: 457-472 , January 01, 2014

We have recently designed a fuzzy extension of the XPath language which provides ranked answers to flexible queries taking profit of fuzzy variants of *and*, *or* and *avg* operators for XPath conditions, as well as two structural constraints, called *down* and *deep*, for which a certain degree of relevance is associated. In this work, we describe how to implement the proposed fuzzy XPath with the XQuery language. Basically, we have defined an XQuery library able to fuzzily handle XPath expressions in such a way that our proposed fuzzy XPath can be encoded as XQuery expressions. The advantages of our approach is that any XQuery processor can handle a fuzzy version of XPath by using the library we have implemented.

## The Second Venn Diagrammatic System

### Diagrammatic Representation and Inference (2014-01-01) 8578: 293-307 , January 01, 2014

We present syntax and semantics of a diagrammatic language based on Venn diagrams in which a diagram is not read as a statement about sets, but as a set itself. We prove that our set of rules is sound and complete with respect to the intended semantics. Our system has two slight advantages in relation to the systems we usually encounter in the literature. First, the drawing of diagrams for terms is made inside the system, i.e., by a completely mechanical process based just on the rules of the system. Second, as a consequence, the validity of an inclusion is also verified inside the system and does not depend on any other means than those afforded by our set of rules. These characteristics are absent in the majority of the Venn diagrammatic systems.

## FoodCam: A Real-Time Mobile Food Recognition System Employing Fisher Vector

### MultiMedia Modeling (2014-01-01) 8326: 369-373 , January 01, 2014

In the demo, we demonstrate a mobile food recognition system with Fisher Vector and liner one-vs-rest SVMs which enables us to record our food habits easily. In the experiments with 100 kinds of food categories, we have achieved the 79.2% classification rate for the top 5 category candidates when the ground-truth bounding boxes are given. The prototype system is open to the public as an Android-based smartphone application.

## Related Randomness Attacks for Public Key Encryption

### Public-Key Cryptography – PKC 2014 (2014-01-01) 8383: 465-482 , January 01, 2014

Several recent and high-profile incidents give cause to believe that randomness failures of various kinds are endemic in deployed cryptographic systems. In the face of this, it behoves cryptographic researchers to develop methods to immunise – to the extent that it is possible – cryptographic schemes against such failures. This paper considers the practically-motivated situation where an adversary is able to force a public key encryption scheme to reuse random values, and functions of those values, in encryption computations involving adversarially chosen public keys and messages. It presents a security model appropriate to this situation, along with variants of this model. It also provides necessary conditions on the set of functions used in order to attain this security notation, and demonstrates that these conditions are also sufficient in the Random Oracle Model. Further standard model constructions achieving weaker security notions are also given, with these constructions having interesting connections to other primitives including: pseudo-random functions that are secure in the related key attack setting; Correlated Input Secure hash functions; and public key encryption schemes that are secure in the auxiliary input setting (this being a special type of leakage resilience).

## YouQoS – A New Concept for Quality of Service in DSL Based Access Networks

### Advances in Communication Networking (2014-01-01): 8846 , January 01, 2014

Today’s Internet users typically own multiple devices and consume several services simultaneously. Due to this usage pattern, bandwidth in *Access Network* (ANs) is often insufficient. Increasing bandwidth is not always feasible or economic. A well-known approach to cope with limited bandwidth is *Quality of Service* (QoS) enforcement. However, today’s QoS solutions are neither accepted by providers nor by users. Users are concerned because of network neutrality. Operators hesitate adopting QoS frameworks because they typically require end to end deployment. In this paper we present YouQoS – a solution, which addresses operators’ as well as users’ concerns by providing a QoS solution, which works locally in the AN based on user defined QoS policies. We introduce our evolutionary approach to QoS management in today’s *Digital Subscriber Line* (DSL) based ANs by utilizing and enhancing existing QoS mechanisms. Furthermore, we provide an initial proof of concept with a Linux demonstrator.

## A Computational Model of Anti-Bayesian Sensory Integration in the Size-Weight Illusion

### Neural Information Processing (2014-01-01) 8835: 76-83 , January 01, 2014

We propose a computational model for anti-Bayesian sensory integration of human behavioral actions and perception in the size–weight illusion (SWI). The SWI refers to the fact that people judge the smaller of two equally weighted objects to heavier when lifted. Many aspects of human perceptual and motor behavior can be modeled with Bayesian statistics. However, the SWI cannot be explained on the basis of Bayesian integration, and the nervous system is thought to use two entirely different mechanisms to integrate prior expectations with current sensory information about object weight. Our proposed model is defined as a state estimator, combining a Kalman filter and a H^{ ∞ } filter. As a result, the model not only predicted the anti-Bayesian estimation of the weight but also the Bayesian estimation of the motor behavior. Therefore, we hypothesize that the SWI is realized by a H^{ ∞ } filter and a Kalman filter.

## Complexity of Extended vs. Classic LR Parsers

### Descriptional Complexity of Formal Systems (2014-01-01) 8614: 77-89 , January 01, 2014

For the deterministic context-free languages, we compare the space and time complexity of their *LR* (1) parsers, constructed in two different ways: the classic method by Knuth [7] for *BNF* grammars, and the recent one by the authors [2], which directly builds the parser from *EBNF* grammars represented as transition networks. For the *EBNF* grammars, the classic Knuth’s method is indirect as it needs to convert them to *BNF*. We describe two parametric families of formal languages indexed by the number of stars, which exhibit a linear growth of the parser size (number of states) in passing from the classic to our novel direct methods. Experimental measurements of the number of parser states and of the parsing speed for two real languages (*Java* and *JSON*) confirm the advantage of the new direct parser model for *EBNF* grammars.