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## Design and analysis of key exchange protocols via secure channel identification

### Advances in Cryptology — ASIACRYPT'94 (1995-01-01) 917: 171-181 , January 01, 1995

We suggest a new methodology for design and analysis of key exchange protocols. The basic idea is to establish the minimum cryptographic requirements in delivering a new session key, and to identify how these are achieved in the protocol under examination. The method is therefore limited to key exchange protocols and to establishing that the basic properties exist. The method is easy to carry out by hand (although some existing protocols may be difficult to handle). It allows existing protocols to be re-designed and new protocols designed in a flexible manner. A number of new protocols designed with the method are suggested.

## MNP: A class of NP optimization problems

### Computing and Combinatorics (1995-01-01) 959: 559-565 , January 01, 1995

We investigate a large class of NP optimization problems which we call *MNP*. We show that *Rmax(2)* [PR] are in our class and some problems which are not likely in *Rmax(2)* are in our class. We also define a new kind of reductions, WL-reductions, to preserve approximability and unapproximability, so it is more general version of L-reductions[PY] and A-reductions [PR]. Then we show some complete problems of this class under WL-reductions and prove that the maxclique problem is one of them. So all complete problems in this class are as difficult to approximate as the max-clique problem.

## The binomial transform and its application to the analysis of skip lists

### Algorithms — ESA '95 (1995-01-01) 979: 554-569 , January 01, 1995

To any sequence of real numbers 〈*a*_{n}〉_{n}≥0, we can associate another sequence 〈*â*_{s}〉_{s}≥0, called its *binomial transform*. This transform is defined through the rule
$$\hat a_s = \mathcal{B}_s a_n = \sum\limits_n {( - 1)^n \left( {\begin{array}{*{20}c}s \\n \\\end{array} } \right)a_n .}$$

We study the properties of this transform, obtaining rules for its manipulation and a table of transforms, that allow us to invert many transforms by inspection.

We use these methods to perform a detailed analysis of *skip lists*, a probabilistic data structure introduced by W. Pugh as an alternative to balanced trees. In particular, we obtain the mean and variance for the cost of searching for the first or the last element in the list (confirming results obtained previously by other methods), and also for the cost of searching for a random element (whose variance was not known). We obtain exact (albeit sometimes complicated) expressions for all *n*≥0, and from them we find the corresponding asymptotic expressions.

## Integration und Customizing von Methoden

### Prozeß- und Methoden-Management für Informationssysteme (1995-01-01): 162-186 , January 01, 1995

### Zusammenfassung

Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, einerseits die Anpassung von Entwicklungsmethoden an Unternehmen und Projekte und andererseits die kontinuierliche Modifikation und die Integration neuer Aspekte bei eine elektronische Methodenbeschreibung zu zeigen.

## Inferring finite automata with stochastic output functions and an application to map learning

### Machine Learning (1995-01-01) 18: 81-108 , January 01, 1995

It is often useful for a robot to construct a spatial representation of its environment from experiments and observations, in other words, to learn a map of its environment by exploration. In addition, robots, like people, make occasional errors in perceiving the spatial features of their environments. We formulate map learning as the problem of inferring from noisy observations the structure of a reduced deterministic finite automaton. We assume that the automaton to be learned has a distinguishing sequence. Observation noise is modeled by treating the observed output at each state as a random variable, where each visit to the state is an independent trial and the correct output is observed with probability exceeding 1/2. We assume no errors in the state transition function.

Using this framework, we provide an exploration algorithm to learn the correct structure of such an automaton with probability 1−δ, given as inputs δ, an upper bound*m* on the number of states, a distinguishing sequence*s*, and a lower bound α>1/2 on the probability of observing the correct output at any state. The running time and the number of basic actions executed by the learning algorithm are bounded by a polynomial in δ^{−1},*m*, |*s*|, and (1/2−α)^{−1}.

We discuss the assumption that a distinguishing sequence is given, and present a method of using a weaker assumption. We also present and discuss simulation results for the algorithm learning several automata derived from office environments.

## Towards Foundations of Database Schema Independent Modelling of Concepts

### East/West Database Workshop (1995-01-01): 275-288 , January 01, 1995

The paper focuses on the investigation of special kind of dependencies and operations which allow to specify semantics of concepts by not considering database schema. The negative side of data dependencies exploited in relational database theory is that, in order to understand data semantics, we can not disregard schema of relation. The characteristic feature of constraints at conceptual level is that they abstract from any particular logical data representation aspect, while concentrating on the aspects which are common to all logical representations. It means that critical assumption about Universal Relation could be relaxed at the conceptual design phase. This study of conceptual dependencies and operations among concepts is based on the investigation of semantics of relationships which are defined independently from database logical schema.

## Neue Leistungsmerkmale und Tarife bei Standard-Festverbindungen 1995

### Corporate Networks und neue Techniken (1995-01-01): 131-145 , January 01, 1995

## Organizing Usability in the Corporation

### Human—Computer Interaction (1995-01-01): 372-375 , January 01, 1995

How should usability resources be organized in the company in order to make the most effective use of the resources at hand? Often, very little thought is given to effectiveness issues and the decision about organization of resources is done on a political basis. In this paper, we describe the organization of the User-Centered Systems Engineering and Research (USER) Lab at Intel, the various interaction styles we have used on different products and our observations about the effectiveness of this organization and various interaction styles.

## Front Matter - Visual Database Systems 3

### Visual Database Systems 3 (1995-01-01) , January 01, 1995

## Compositional formal specification of multi-agent systems

### Intelligent Agents (1995-01-01) 890: 102-117 , January 01, 1995

In this paper it is investigated how multi-agent systems with complex agents can be designed and formally specified based on the notion of a compositional architecture. After identifying the types of knowledge required for an agent we formally define a general multi-agent system. Moreover, a specific type of agent with various capabilities of reasoning and acting is given. Some essential patterns of integrated reasoning, communication and interaction with the material world are described. Finally, we present an overview of formal semantics for our approach.