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## 3D-line clipping algorithms — a comparative study

### The Visual Computer (1994-02-01) 11: 96-104 , February 01, 1994

Some well-known line-polyhedron intersection methods are summed up and new accelerating modifications presented. Results of comparison of known and newly developed methods are included. New methods use the fact that each line can be described as the intersection of two planes.

## Declarative semantics for contradictory modular logic programs

### Methodologies for Intelligent Systems (1994-01-01) 869: 245-254 , January 01, 1994

A complex reasoning system can be designed as an interaction between reasoning modules. A module consists of a declaration of exported/imported predicates and a set of rules containing both negation by default and classical negation. A *prioritized modular logic program (PMP)* consists of a set of modules and a partial order <_{def} on the predicate definitions (*M, p*), where *M* is a module and *p* is a predicate exported by *M.* Because of the classical negation, conflicts may arise within and among modules. The partial order <_{def} denotes the relative reliability of the predicate definitions contributing to the conflict. We present the *reliable semantics* for *PMPs*. The goal of the reliable semantics is to draw reliable conclusions from possibly contradictory *PMPs*.

## Chaos

### Dynamic Modeling (1994-01-01): 219-226 , January 01, 1994

Before the advent of modem computer technology and software, many modeling efforts and scientific experiments were designed for linear, often static systems, that had the advantage of being analytically solvable. The ways of thinking about system behavior and the tools applied to describe that behavior were deeply rooted in classical mechanics. This science was used to describe the behavior of whole classes of moving objects, such as pendulums, falling rocks, and projectiles. We modeled those systems in the previous chapter. The scientific paradigms associated with classical mechanics were not only applied in the realm of the natural sciences but increasingly influenced models of economic and ecological systems as well.

## Nondeterministic automata with concurrency relations and domains

### Trees in Algebra and Programming — CAAP'94 (1994-01-01) 787: 202-217 , January 01, 1994

We introduce an operational model of concurrent systems, called nondeterministic automata with concurrency relations. These are nondeterministic labelled transition systems where the event set is endowed with a system of symmetric irreflexive binary relations which describe when two events in a particular state commute. This model generalizes the recent concept of Droste's automata with concurrency relations which are based on deterministic labelled transition systems. A permutation equivalence of computation sequences arises canonically, and we obtain a natural domain comprising the induced equivalence classes. We give a complete characterization of all such partial orders. Then we consider certain subclasses of all nondeterministic automata with concurrency relations and characterize the partial orders generated by them. Surprisingly, those automata which satisfy the cube axiom generate particular L-domains, and so called stable automata which satisfy the cube and the inverse cube axiom generate particular distributive L-domains. Restricting to the case of deterministic automata we finally give a representation theorem for dI-domains with particular stable deterministic automata.

## Grundlagen der dreidimensionalen Computergrafik

### Computergrafik (1994-01-01): 57-72 , January 01, 1994

### Zusammenfassung

In den ersten Kapiteln dieses Buches wurden Grundlagen der zwei- und dreidimensionalen Computergrafik eingeführt. Die folgenden Kapitel beschreiben die Darstellung dreidimensionaler Objekte auf dem Bildschirm und welche Schritte dazu notwendig sind.

## Integration of learning into a knowledge modelling framework

### A Future for Knowledge Acquisition (1994-01-01) 867: 355-373 , January 01, 1994

In this paper we will report our current research on the NOOS language, an attempt to provide a uniform representation framework for inference and learning components supporting flexible and multiple combination of these components. Rather than a specific combination of learning methods, we are interested in an architecture adaptable to different domains where multiple learning strategies (combinations of learning methods) can be programmed. Our approach derives from the knowledge modelling frameworks developed for the design and construction of KBSs based on the task/method decomposition principle and the analysis of knowledge requirements for methods. Our thesis is that learning methods are methods with introspection capabilities that can be also analyzed in the same task/method decomposition. In order to infer new decisions from the results and behavior of other inference processes, those results and behavior have to be represented and stored in the memory for the learning method to be able to work with them.

## Bounded-arity hierarchies in fixed-point logics

### Computer Science Logic (1994-01-01) 832: 150-164 , January 01, 1994

In this paper we prove that for each *k*, the expressive power of *k*-ary fixed-point logic, i.e. the fragment of fixed-point logic whose fixed-point operators are restricted to arity ≤ *k*, strictly exceeds the power of (*k* − 1)-ary fixed-point logic. This solves a problem that was posed by Chandra and Harel in 1982.

Our proof has a rather general form that applies to several variants of fixed-point logic and also to transitive-closure logic.

## Treiber

### TEX/LATEX und Graphik (1994-01-01): 81-102 , January 01, 1994

### Zusammenfassung

Die Methodik der Integration von Graphiken in TEX-Dokumente durch die Interpretation des \special-Befehls oder richtiger der *DVI operation codes* 239 bis 242 ist entgegen der Hoffung von Donald E. Knuth, die er zu Ende des Kapitels 21 in The *TEXbook* äußerte, nicht vereinheitlicht worden. Zwar hat die TEX Users Group ein Komitee zur Entwicklung von Richtlinien für Treiberprogramme eingesetzt, jedoch ist diese Gruppe von den Fakten überholt worden. Sie sah sich mit Treibern konfrontiert, die mit einer unterschiedlichen Syntax die Lücke schlossen, die TEX in Bezug auf Graphik offen ließ. Diese Treiber haben sich im Laufe der Zeit etabliert und sind zu Standardtreibern geworden.

## The Configuration Ratio: A model for simulating CMOS intra-gate bridge with variable logic thresholds

### Dependable Computing — EDCC-1 (1994-01-01) 852: 165-177 , January 01, 1994

In order to simulate the effects of a bridging fault it is necessary to accurately determine the intermediate voltage of the shortednodes, deduce the intermediate voltage of the faulty gate output and compare it to the logic threshold voltage of the driven gates. This paper presents a general model called ”the Configuration Ratio model ” which can be used to determine if aparticular structure of transistors gives an intermediate voltage which is higher or lower than a given threshold voltage. The approach is extremely faster than the previous ones since no SPICE simulation is required. The accuracy is of 0.06V to compare with SPICE simulations. In case of library based design a preliminary library characterization is possible allowing a very fast time during fault simulation.