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## Heuristic Optimization Techniques for Air Gap Membrane Distillation System

### Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering (2017-05-01) 42: 1951-1965 , May 01, 2017

Heuristic approaches are proposed and implemented to optimize the air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) system for water desalination. A mathematical model to predict the permeate flux of the AGMD system was developed based on the analysis of heat and mass transfers within the module. The developed mathematical model is linked to two optimization algorithms, namely the ant colony optimization (ACO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). These algorithms have been developed and employed to find the optimal set of variables for the maximum permeate flux of distilled water. The considered variables included feed water temperature, coolant water temperature, air gap width, feed flow rate, and coolant flow rate. The PSO provides comparatively better solution and is computationally less intensive. The differences between the optimum values of flux from the two techniques were found to be less than 3%. Effects of extending the limits (ranges) of different variables were considered.

## Experimental Study on the Pore Water Pressure Generation Characteristics of Saturated Silty Sands

### Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering (2014-08-01) 39: 6055-6067 , August 01, 2014

The excess pore water pressure produced during earthquake shaking causes liquefaction and influences significantly the shear strength, deformation and settlement characteristics of granular soil deposits. Therefore, the stability of the structures constructed from these deposits or founded on them is adversely affected. The mechanisms of pore pressure generation and, in turn, liquefaction resistance of granular soils are still not fully clear and require further research. For the purpose of clarifying and evaluating pore pressure buildup characteristics of sandy soils, a series of undrained monotonic triaxial tests were carried out on different reconstituted samples of sand–silt mixture at various intergranular void ratios. The soil samples were tested under a constant confining pressure (
$${\sigma_{3}'=100 {\rm kPa}}$$
) and at three relative densities (*D*_{r} = 20, 53 and 91 %). The results obtained from this study reveal that the fraction of low plastic fines plays an important role in the generation of excess pore water pressure in samples of the Chlef sand–silt mixtures. It was found that excess pore water pressure can be correlated with the undrained shear strength at the peak for the range of fines’ content under consideration. The gross and intergranular void ratios appear as pertinent parameters to represent the pore water pressure response of the sand–silt mixtures for a given fines’ content.

## Operation Planning of a Smart Microgrid Including Controllable Loads and Intermittent Energy Resources by Considering Uncertainties

### Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering (2014-08-01) 39: 6297-6315 , August 01, 2014

This paper presents a new model for optimum operation of a microgrid, consisting dispatchable supplier (microturbine), non-dispatchable supplier (wind turbine), energy storage system, and loads. It has the capability of energy exchanging with upstream distribution network and contains both controllable and uncontrollable loads. For the controllable loads by presenting a new controlling algorithms, the consumption of these loads is changed or postponed to another time, with regard to the uncertainties of wind generation and the energy price of upstream distribution network, and of course by considering the welfare level of consumers. On the other hand, Monte Carlo simulation method has been used, in order to model the uncertainties of wind generation, energy price of the upstream distribution network, power consumption of uncontrollable loads, and also the failure probability of units and disconnection probability from the network. In this method, various scenarios have been generated and involved in the operation optimization program with other required inputs for the next 24h. Finally, the proposed models have been simulated on a typical microgrid with two 200kW microturbines, one 400kW wind turbine, 300kWh battery bank, and some loads with about 420kW peak demand. Simulation results by considering uncertainties for the various proposed load management programs have been analyzed and show that by implementing these programs, total operation profit of microgrid is increased from about 47$ to 54$ per day.

## Experimental Study on the Effect of an Expanding Conjunction Between a Spilling Basin and the Downstream Channel on the Height After Jump

### Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering (2017-09-01) 42: 4069-4078 , September 01, 2017

In order to study the impact of an expanding conjunction (with a divergent conjunction or with an abruptly expanding conjunction) between a stilling basin and the downstream channel on the height after jump, systematic experimental studies were carried out with different divergent angles and different abrupt expansion ratios at the conjunction. The link between the conjunction type and the height after jump is explored. The height after jump without an expanding conjunction is larger than that with a divergent conjunction, while the height after a jump without an expanding conjunction is larger than that with the abrupt expanding conjunction. Furthermore, with a larger divergent angle or larger expansion ratio, the impact on the height after jump becomes more variable. It is proposed that the existing formula which is used to calculate the height after jump in a straight channel is not appropriate for a jump with an expanding conjunction. This paper proposes a corrected formula to calculate the height after jump with an expanding conjunction, which is suggested for application in the engineering design process.

## A Multilevel Inverter with Reduced Power Switches

### Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering (2016-09-01) 41: 3605-3617 , September 01, 2016

In this paper, a new basic 15-level inverter is proposed. Based on this inverter, a new 95-level inverter and a developed multilevel inverter are proposed. In addition, a new algorithm to determine the magnitude of dc voltage source of the basic unit is introduced. The proposed inverter is able to generate maximum number of output levels by using minimum number of power switches, driver circuits, IGBTs, power diodes and dc voltage sources. These advantages lead to decrease complexity, installation space and total cost of the inverter. These results are obtained by comparing the proposed inverter with several conventional multilevel inverters that have been presented in the literature. These comparisons are done in design of two multilevel inverters with minimum 15 levels and 95 levels at the output. Finally, the accuracy performance of the proposed inverter to generate all positive and negative levels at the output is reconfirmed through the experimental results on a 15-level inverter.

## Estimation of Vehicular Speed and Passenger Car Equivalent Under Mixed Traffic Condition Using Artificial Neural Network

### Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering (2017-09-01) 42: 4099-4110 , September 01, 2017

Development of speed model is a challenging task particularly under mixed traffic condition where the traffic composition plays a significant role in determining the individual vehicle speed. Estimation of passenger car equivalent (PCE) which is essential in converting the mixed traffic volume into its equivalent homogeneous also requires the speed information of individual vehicle categories at varying traffic conditions on the road. The present research was carried out to model the individual vehicle speed and to study the effects of traffic volume and its composition on individual speed and PCE in the context of urban mixed traffic. Traffic data on classified traffic volume and speed information were collected at six-lane divided arterial mid-block road sections in New Delhi, India. The methodology of artificial neural network was adopted to develop a volume-based speed prediction model for individual vehicle category. Validation results showed a great deal of agreement between the predicted and the observed speeds. Then, the sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing the model developed in order to examine the effects of traffic volume and its composition on individual speed and corresponding PCE.

## On the Representation Theory of Normal Hopf Subalgebras

### Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering (2011-08-11) 36: 947-955 , August 11, 2011

We survey the results obtained so far in the study of normal Hopf subalgebras of semisimple Hopf algebras. The connection between normal Hopf subalgebras and kernels of representations is described. The representation theory of normal Hopf subalgebras and their associated fusion rings are also discussed.

## Genetic Algorithms Applied to PCA–Residues Optimization for Defect Localization

### Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering (2015-08-01) 40: 2123-2132 , August 01, 2015

While defect localization is vital in real-world systems, some limitations inherent to the existing techniques urge us to seek more advanced methods. This paper presents a new approach which takes advantages of genetic algorithms for optimization of non-convex objective function employed in calculating structured residues. The proposed approach so far improved the current principal component analysis (PCA) based on one of the defect localization. It has excellent impact on problem solving while dealing with optimization of residues structuring. The first part illustrates both the PCA model and the traditional residues structuring approach. The principle of optimizing a problem via genetic algorithms is explained later. A proposed objective function to be optimized is defined in the next part, and its optimization via genetic algorithms allows the structured residues computation. The new approach has been applied and proved functional for monitoring the Tennessee Eastman process. We have also proved the efficient performance of the proposed method in comparing it with some state-of-the-art methods.

## Oxidized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Adsorbents for Kinetic and Equilibrium Study of Removal of 5-(4-Dimethyl Amino Benzylidene)Rhodanine

### Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering (2013-07-01) 38: 1691-1699 , July 01, 2013

The oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube was used as efficient adsorbent for the adsorption of 5-(4-dimethyl benzylidene amino) rhodanine (DMBAR) from aqueous solutions. The effect of solution pH, initial dye concentration contact time, temperature and sorption time on DMBAR removal ability was studied. The equilibrium sorption isotherms have been analyzed using different model such as Freundlich, Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich models. The experimental data well fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms with correlation coefficients more than 0.97 and adsorption capacity of 15.52 mg/g. The apparent calculated thermodynamic parameters (Δ*H*^{0} = 24.592, 24.285, 15.954 Kj/mol, Δ*S*^{0} = 118.581, 109.081, 80.005 j/k mol and Ea = 23.936, 23.744, 15.464 Kj/mol) support the conclusion that the DMBAR molecules are adsorbed by entropy-driven endothermic process. Among different conventional kinetic methods such as pseudo-first order, pseudo-second and intraparticle diffusion-order kinetic models, the adsorption process follows a second-order equation while the intraparticle diffusion is one of the rate-limiting factor.

## Improvement of Multilevel Inverters Topology Using Series and Parallel Connections of DC Voltage Sources

### Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering (2014-02-01) 39: 1117-1127 , February 01, 2014

This paper proposes a new topology for multilevel inverters based on series and parallel {R1–7} connection’s of the dc voltage sources. Series and parallel {R1–7} connections ability of the proposed topology make it capable of increasing the number of voltage levels and the output current, respectively. The proposed topology is optimized from the viewpoint of number of switches, number of dc voltage sources, and maximum blocked voltage by switches. The optimal topologies with minimum number of switches and dc voltage sources are computed to produce the maximum number of output voltage levels with minimum blocked voltage by switches. In addition, a new algorithm for the determination of magnitudes of dc voltage sources is presented. Furthermore, to verify the theoretical aspects, the proposed topology is compared with some of the new presented multilevel inverters. The performance of the proposed multilevel inverter is verified by the simulation and experimental results of a single-phase 25-level inverter.