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## Marine Engine Oils

### Encyclopedia of Tribology (2013-01-01): 2164-2172 , January 01, 2013

## Einleitung

### Kondensation und Verdampfung an strukturierten Rohren (2015-01-01): 1-4 , January 01, 2015

### Zusammenfassung

Das allgemeine Streben nach energieeffizienten Anlagen, bedingt durch den Klimawandel und die absehbare Verknappung fossiler Rohstoffe, gewinnt in den letzten Jahrzehnten vermehrt an Bedeutung. Der Einfluss dieses Strebens ist auch im Bereich der Kälte- und Klimatechnik sowie der chemischen Industrie gegenwärtig. In diesen Bereichen werden Wärmeübertrager und im Speziellen Rohrbündelwärmeübertrager als grundlegende Komponenten in einer Vielzahl von technischen Anlagen zum Verdampfen und Verflüssigen von Wasser, Ölen, Kältemitteln und Gasen eingesetzt. Im Inneren der meist horizontal angeordneten Rohre kann bspw.

## Tabellen der konfluenten hypergeometrischen Funktion erster und zweiter Art

### Ingenieur-Archiv (1937-04-01) 8: 99-103 , April 01, 1937

## A tabu search approach to the cell formation problem

### The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (2004-06-01) 23: 916-924 , June 01, 2004

The cell formation problem determines the decomposition of the manufacturing cells of a production system in which machines are assigned to these cells to process one or more part families so that each cell is operated independently and the intercellular flows are minimised or the number of parts flow processed within cells is maximised. In this paper, a tabu search heuristic—TSCF—that consists of dynamic tabu tenure with a long-term memory mechanism is presented to solve the cell formation problem. Test problems adopted from the literature and generated randomly are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. In addition, two methods for quickly generating the initial solutions are proposed, namely the group-and-assign (GAA) method, and the random approach. Computational results indicate that the GAA method, accompanied by the TSCF algorithm can produce optimal solutions in less than or equal to 0.005 s for all small- and medium-sized problems. The proposed algorithm should thus be useful to both practitioners and researchers.

## Early Development of Oil Burning in America

### Oil Burning (1937-01-01): 8-10 , January 01, 1937

The outstanding feature of this stage in America, curiously enough, is that there seems to have been too much theoretical knowledge, this being the cause of several failures. In fact it was generally considered as absolutely necessary to evaporate the oil first and then to burn the oil gas. Although this may be quite right from a theoretical point of view (our modern spray burners produce liquid drops which evaporate by radiation of heat, and the gas thus produced is burnt), the idea of heating and evaporating the fuel oil in a separate retort and burning the oil gas under the boilers led to nothing but complete failures. This unsatisfactory start gave oil burning a bad reputation in America and this is perhaps the reason why America was rather late in the industrial application of oil burning on a large scale, so that it was not until 1890–1900 that the first merchantmen of the Pacific Coast tried oil burning.

## Stability and Hopf bifurcation of a predator–prey model with stage structure and time delay for the prey

### Nonlinear Dynamics (2016-02-01) 83: 1409-1418 , February 01, 2016

A predator–prey system with stage structure and time delay for the prey is investigated. By analyzing the corresponding characteristic equations, the local stability of a positive equilibrium and two boundary equilibria of the system is discussed, respectively. By using persistence theory on infinite dimensional systems and comparison argument, respectively, sufficient conditions are obtained for the global stability of the positive equilibrium and one of the boundary equilibria of the proposed system. Further, the existence of a Hopf bifurcation at the positive equilibrium is studied. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the main results.

## The finite element process of solution

### The Mechanics of Solids and Structures - Hierarchical Modeling and the Finite Element Solution (2011-01-01): 395-517 , January 01, 2011

At this point it should be clear that the principle of virtual work is an integral form of expressing equilibrium, and when we introduce the other two basic requirements to be satisfied, namely, compatibility and the constitutive behavior into the virtual work statement, we have the mathematical model formulated in integral form. It is then called the variational formulation of the problem.

## Effect of gas dissolved in water on the heat-exchange crisis

### Soviet Atomic Energy (1982-10-01) 53: 687-690 , October 01, 1982

## Measures Taken at Design Level to Counter Common Cause Failures. A Few Comments Concerning the Approach of EDF

### Advanced Seminar on Common Cause Failure Analysis in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (1989-01-01) 5: 107-111 , January 01, 1989

To achieve a high level of safety, the design of French nuclear power plants embodies conventional principles intended to avoid or minimize the effects of common cause failures:

redundancy,

diversity,

the fail-safe principle,

channel separation,

maintenance policy,

automation.

## Optimal non-homogeneous composites for dynamic loading

### Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (2005-08-01) 30: 101-112 , August 01, 2005

An algorithm is proposed to optimize the performance of a two-phase composite under dynamic loading. The goal is to determine a series of different layouts of the two base materials in a three-dimensional region such that the time-averaged stress energy is minimized. Four cases with different boundary conditions and ratios of mass density are considered and solved numerically. The resulting optimal designs are compared to the static case to illustrate the effect of the dynamic loading. Furthermore, a qualitative comparison is done to indicate the difference between the optimization of eigenfrequencies and the present formulation.