Afghanistan is the poorest country in the world outside of Sub-Saharan Africa (Rubin 2007). Out of 187 countries, Afghanistan ranks 172nd on the Human Development Index (UNDP 2011). Life expectancy is 43.6 years, the literacy rate is 28% (the female rate is 12%), and only half of the country’s children are enrolled in schools (UNDP 2009b). GDP per capita ranks 215 out of 227 countries at $900, and even though GDP grew 7% in 2007, for example, much of the population (80% rural) remains poor and without regular access to clean water, medical care, or electricity (CIA 2011; Gross 2009). In religious terms Afghanistan is estimated to be 80% Sunni and 19% Shi’ia, with 1% being ‘other’, but the ethnic composition of Afghanistan is more complex: 42% are estimated to be Pashtun, while 27% are Tajiks, 9% are Hazara, 9% are Uzbeks, 4% are Aimak, 3% are Turkmen, 2% are Balock, and 4% are other (Cordesman 2008).