Max Weber's study of the interplay of orthodoxy and heterodoxy in Chinese history was accurate, given the limited material with which he had to work. But for political reasons illuminated by Giddens  and others, Weber did not use the category of social class in either his theoretical work or in his empirical analyses of world religions. In the case of China, in particular Weber's study of the interplay of orthodoxy (Confucianism) and heterodoxy (Taoissm) remains merely descriptive because of his refusal to see society in terms of social classes.
Confucianism and Taoism were dialectically opposed on cultural, political and social levels. Their philosophical systems were at odds; Confucianism presented a rationalistic, moralistic philosophy of social behavior, while Taoism argued for a mystical, existential philosophy of life. In political theory and practice they were equally at odds: Confucianism became inseparable from the operating became inseparable from the operating mechanisms of state, while Taoism perceived the state as a repressive means for maintaining the existing hierarchy, and therefore became the political philosophy of the sects and movements which challenged the state hegemony. And, finally, Confucianism and Taoism were dialectically opposed on the question of social class: Confucianism preached the benefits of a stratified and stable hierarchy and provided, therefore, the political philosophy of repression. Taoism, in contrast, called for the abolition of hierarchy, and provided the ideological basis for rebellion.
Societies must be viewed in their full complexity when one studies broad questions such as the interplay of orthodoxy and heterodoxy. One cannot settle merely for the sociological or any other social variable. For it is only the dialectical movement of specific interacting elements, that is, the social totality, which enables us to grasp the means through which societies reproduce themselves. The momentous paradox is that these continuities and discontinuities, these transformations define the historical integrity of a culture.