Based on personal experience, interviews, and numerous anecdotal evidence documented in the press, this paper analyzes current practices and focuses on future challenges of business development in Ukraine. In particular, the most recent developments in evolution of business relations and ethics are studied. Business ethics practices are viewed within the current political, economic, and social context. A unique combination of three factors: old communist mentality, new “mafia-style” capitalism, and Ukrainian nationalism have created a situation where applying internationally accepted ethical concepts may not lead to success. The new entrepreneurial spirit and privatization windfalls against the background of cronyism, bureaucracy, and organized crime have produced the new rules of doing business. Business ethics reflect a peculiar combination of the above factors and make them difficult for the outsider to comprehend.