Kleinschmidt's definition of the “Weltformenkreis” as the smallest systematical unit of affinity removes any danger of obliterating the type and at the same time opens a way for judging the superior taxonomic groups on principle differently from the subspecies of a “Formenkreis”.
It is demonstrated that the characters of geographical subspecies (“Rassen”) are characters of apparent shaping, those of the species however are characters of construction and qualitative and autonomic ones. It is the type differentiating in quality that justifies the definition of species. As the characters of type do not necessarily appear gradual and quantitative, but are qualitative, the types cannot be derived from one another, unless they are conceived by the common superordinate idea of the superior systematical category next in order.
The distinct division of species is opposed to the hypothetical continuity of the pedigree, which cannot be explained by a consanguinity nor by an affinity based on reproduction. The pedigree, however, is an expression of the spiritual order of nature, in which the types appear as units hierarchically graduated and determined by entelechy, not by dead matter.
Within the systematical units there is a creative evolution, steadily pursuing its aim and leading from the primitive stage to the differentiated one, beginning with a juvenile phase, which is followed by orthogenetic maturity and, finally, by the aged stage with its “detypification”. The adaptation to the environment (biotope) may be also proved for the primitive forms and is an organic part of the whole design of the world for them as well as for the specialized and differentiated forms. — The formation of new types cannot be explained in a merely mechanical way; everywhere, even in the gens and genoms, we state ingenious modifications, which do not only bring about a reaction of a single modification to the whole, but operate from the whole. Since the origin of man, since the tertiary formation, the creation of species has completely ceased. There are only alterations of subspecific character.
After a digressive treatise on the fundamental difference of man and animal in order to explain the type the superior systematical categories are characterized as spiritual realities. It is especially for the “genus” that a revision is necessary. The reality of the common origin of certain species within the genus is not based on reproduction (as it is the case in the “Formenkreis”), but on the superior totality comprising the species. Individuals can be conceived by the character of the species, species by the character of genus only. This is an evidence for the methodicalness of creative nature. It excludes any evolution of the genus “from bottom to top”, which is irregular, accidental or immediately formed by environment. From this we derive the comprehensive right of a natural system which now is more than mere classification.