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## Nonself-similar flow with a shock wave reflected from the center of symmetry and new self-similar solutions with two reflected shocks

### Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics (2013-03-01) 53: 350-368 , March 01, 2013

In some problems concerning cylindrically and spherically symmetric unsteady ideal (inviscid and nonheat-conducting) gas flows at the axis and center of symmetry (hereafter, at the center of symmetry), the gas density vanishes and the speed of sound becomes infinite starting at some time. This situation occurs in the problem of a shock wave reflecting from the center of symmetry. For an ideal gas with constant heat capacities and their ratio γ (adiabatic exponent), the solution of this problem near the reflection point is self-similar with a self-similarity exponent determined in the course of the solution construction. Assuming that γ on the reflected shock wave decreases, if this decrease exceeds a threshold value, the flow changes substantially. Assuming that the type of the solution remains unchanged for such γ, self-similarity is preserved if a piston starts expanding from the center of symmetry at the reflection time preceded by a finite-intensity reflected shock wave propagating at the speed of sound. To answer some questions arising in this formulation, specifically, to find the solution in the absence of the piston, the evolution of a close-to-self-similar solution calculated by the method of characteristics is traced. The required modification of the method of characteristics and the results obtained with it are described. The numerical results reveal a number of unexpected features. As a result, new self-similar solutions are constructed in which two (rather than one) shock waves reflect from the center of symmetry in the absence of the piston.

## Conjugate Problem for Lagrange Multipliers and Consequences for Partial Differential Equations of Mixed Type

### Journal of Mathematical Sciences (2015-07-01) 208: 181-198 , July 01, 2015

We formulate and solve the conjugate problem for Lagrange multipliers connected with designing a Laval nozzle optimal contour, including its subsonic part. In approximation of an ideal (inviscid and nonheat-conducting) gas, the sought contour provides a thrust maximum under a number of constraints; in particular, given total nozzle length and gas mass flow. For a contour of a contracting (subsonic) part of the nozzle (which is suspected to be optimal) we take an abrupt contraction. Because of the constraint on the nozzle length, the abrupt contraction can be a region of boundary extremum with positive permissible variations of the longitudinal (“axial”) coordinate of the contour. To clarify whether this is true, we use the method of Lagrange multipliers and formulate the conjugate problem for finding the Lagrange multipliers. As in the case of quasilinear Euler equations governing a flow, the linear equations in the conjugate problem are elliptic (hyperbolic) in the subsonic (supersonic) flow domain. The requirement that the conjugate problem be solvable for any contour highlights some features that can be of interest not only for this special problem, but, possibly for the general theory of mixed type partial differential equations.