Verbal conditioning as explored by American operant conditioning investigators should not be confused with “semantic conditioning,” a term used by Russian experimenters. Both “semantic conditioning” and “verbal regulation of behavior” are Russian phrases referring to experimental studies using classical rather than operant conditioning methods, and to concepts which are more obviously allied to the problem of “meaning,” or “semantic generalization,” than are present American verbal operant studies. It is clear that the object of study in the Russian laboratories is not meaning per se. Yet the nature of the work, dealing as it does with generalization and discrimination, is such that both methods and results are highly relevant to the issue of meaning as a psychological variable. In addition, the fact that physiological measures are so often used helps to broaden the base for conceptions of meaning in that possible “connections” between stimuli and externalized responses, often assumed but seldom demonstrated, can be more or less directly observed. The implications of this for a theory of meaning will be discussed in more detail in a later section.