A series of kinematic inversions based on robust non-linear optimization approach were performed using travel time data from a series of seismic refraction experiments: CELEBRATION 2000, ALP 2002 and SUDETES 2003. These experiments were performed in Central Europe from 2000 to 2003. Data from 8 profiles (CEL09, CEL10, Alp01, S01, S02, S03, S04 and S05) were processed in this study. The goal of this work was to find seismic velocity models yielding travel times consistent with observed data.
Optimum 2D inhomogeneous isotropic P-wave velocity models were computed. We have developed and used a specialized two-step inverse procedure. In the first “parametric” step, the velocity model contains interfaces whose shapes are defined by a number of parameters. The velocity along each interface is supposed to be constant but may be different along the upper and lower side of the interface. Linear vertical interpolation is used for points in between interfaces. All parameters are searched for using robust non-linear optimization (Differential Evolution algorithm). Rays are continuously traced by the bending technique. In the second “tomographic” step, small-scale velocity perturbations are introduced in a dense grid covering the currently obtained velocity model. Rays are fixed in this step. Final velocity models yield travel time residuals comparable to typical picking errors (RMS ∼ 0.1 s).
As a result, depth-velocity cross-sections of P waves along all processed profiles are obtained. The depth range of the models is 35–50 km, the velocity varies in the range 3.5–8.2 km/s. Lowest velocities are detected in near-surface depth sections crossing sedimentary formations. The middle crust is generally more homogeneous and has typical P wave velocity around 6 km/s. Surprisingly the lower crust is less homogeneous and the computed velocity is in the range 6.5–7.5 km/s. The MOHO is detected in the depth ≈30–45 km.