The main stages in the development of the Pechora Sea are discussed. It is established that, during the high sea level stand corresponding to the warmest epoch of the Mikulino Interglacial, the Pechora Sea represented a more spacious, as compared with its present-day size, basin owing to the flooded valleys of river lower reaches. No sea in its present-day configuration existed during the last (Valdai) glaciation. At that time, the sea could have occupied only a narrow area along the southern coast of Novaya Zemlya, where marine sedimentation was in progress during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. During the glaciation and postglacial time, the dried bottom of the former Pechora Sea accumulated large volumes of sand that are now concentrated largely in the accretion structures along its southern coast. In the current century, changes will occur mainly in the coastal zone of the Russkii Zavorot Peninsula, Pesyakov Island, the Varandei Settlement area, and the Medynskii Zavorot Peninsula, where a shoreline retreat for a distance of 0.5 km is expected.