A great progress in Earth sciences in the past century is Earth Observation (EO) from space and storing, managing, and distributing remotely sensed data via networked geographic information systems (GIS). Various topographic maps, thematic maps, ortho-images, and other products can be obtained from remotely sensed data by air-borne and space-borne remote sensing sensors within the electromagnetic spectrum, including visible, infrared, and microwave bands. Weather forecasts, natural resource exploitations, environmental monitoring, crop yield estimations, land use, land cover change, and prediction and prevention of natural hazards, such as sandstorms, droughts, floods, volcanoes, and earthquakes, can be carried out with Earth observation technology. New Earth observation technology improves the living standards of human beings and the development of social economy. It has contributed greatly to the sustainable development and research of Earth science.