Geological hazards may threaten human life, may result in serious property damage, and may significantly influence normal development of biota. They are caused by natural endogenic and exogenic driving forces or generated by anthropogenic activities. An interaction of geological processes and intense anthropogenic activities, e.g., construction of buildings, harbors, oil and gas pipelines, hydroengineering facilities, and land reclamation, has resulted in hazard potential, especially for the densely populated areas of the Russian Baltic coastal zone. These hazards may in addition be harmful for the sensitive ecosystem of the Baltic Sea. Mapping and assessment of the geological hazard potential should be the main objectives of an integrated management program for the protection of coastal zones. This study documents the first step in that process for the Russian sector of the Baltic Sea and its coastal zone. A major part of endogenic hazard potential both in the Kaliningrad area and in the eastern Gulf of Finland remains at low- or medium-risk levels, but analysis of the recent environmental conditions at the seabed of the Russian sector of the Baltic Sea and, especially, within its coastal zone shows that during the last years the activity of exogenic geological processes has increased significantly. The highest risk within both studied areas has been caused by coastal and bottom erosion. In addition, in shallow area near the shore bottom of the eastern Gulf of Finland, “avalanche” sedimentation and sediment pollution can produce hazardous situations as well.