The populous upland region of this island in the Indian Ocean is heavily dependent on firewood and charcoal to meet its domestic energy requirements. Rural folk collect firewood; city dwellers buy mostly charcoal. Both are used overwhelmingly for cooking. The main wood source is fast-growing but maladaptive eucalyptus and pine planted in reforestation schemes since the turn of the century. A major crisis of woodfuel supply looms in the years ahead that has its roots in population growth, wastefulness, incendiarism, economic retrogression, and administrative tinkering. Even if energy alternatives to woodfuel emerge in the long-term future, environmental rehabilitation remains the key agenda for the region. Reforestation with native trees could simultaneously address the need for wood, soil and water protection, and gene pool maintenance.