Bagasse fly ash (BFA, a sugar industrial waste) was used as low-cost adsorbent for the uptake of arsenate and arsenite species from water. The optimum conditions for the removal of both species of arsenic were as follows: pH 7.0, concentration 50.0 μg/L, contact time 50.0 min, adsorbent dose 3.0 g/L, and temperature 20.0 °C, with 95.0 and 89.5 % removal of arsenate and arsenite, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin–Radushkevich adsorption isotherms were used to analyze the results. The results of these models indicated single-layer uniform adsorption on heterogeneous surface. Thermodynamic parameters, i.e., ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°, were also calculated. At 20.0 to 30.0 °C, the values of ΔG° lie in the range of −4,722.75 to −4,878.82 and −4,308.80 to −4,451.73 while the values of ΔH° and ΔS° were −149.90 and −121.07, and 15.61 and 14.29 for arsenate and arsenite, respectively, indicating that adsorption is spontaneous and exothermic. Pseudo-first-order kinetics was followed. In column experiments, the adsorption decreased as the flow rate increased with the maximum removal of 98.9 and 95.6 % for arsenate and arsenite, respectively. The bed depth service time and Yoon and Nelson models were used to analyze the experimental data. The adsorption capacity (No) of BFA on column was 3.65 and 2.98 mg/cm3 for arsenate and arsenite, respectively. The developed system for the removal of arsenate and arsenite species is economic, rapid, and capable of working under natural conditions. It may be used for the removal of arsenic species from any contaminated water resources.