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## Sinusoszillatoren

### Elemente der angewandten Elektronik (2001-01-01): 206-213 , January 01, 2001

### Zusammenfassung

Eine elementare Schaltung zur Schwingungserzeugung zeigt *Bild 1a*. Sie besteht aus einer dreigliedrigen RC-Kette, einem Spannungsfolger (OP1) und einem nachgeschalteten invertierenden Verstärker (OP2), dessen Ausgang auf den Eingang der RC-Kette rückgekoppelt wird. Trennt man diese „Ringschaltung“ an der gestrichelten Stelle auf, so erhält man für den offenen Ring die „Schleifenverstärkung“:
$${\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle-}$}}{V} _s} = \frac{{{{\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle-}$}}{U} }_2}}}{{{{\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle-}$}}{U} }_1}_1}} = {\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle-}$}}{A} _u}\cdot1\cdot\left( { - {R_f}/{R_N}} \right)\;und\;speziell\;{\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle-}$}}{V} _s} = - \frac{1}{{29}}\cdot1\cdot\left( { - {R_r}/{R_N}} \right){\mkern 1mu} f\ddot u \leqslant r\;\Omega = \frac{1}{{\sqrt 6 }}\;bzw.\;\omega = \frac{1}{{\sqrt 6 \;RC}}$$
.

## Ingenieur- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften

### Ingenieur- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften (2001-01-01) , January 01, 2001

## Audiovisual bimodal mutual compensation of Chinese

### Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences (2001-02-01) 44: 19-26 , February 01, 2001

The perception of human languages is inherently a multi-modal process, in which audio information can be compensated by visual information to improve the recognition performance. Such a phenomenon in English, German, Spanish and so on has been researched, but in Chinese it has not been reported yet. In our experiment, 14 syllables (/ba, bi, bian, biao, bin, de, di, dian, duo, dong, gai, gan, gen, gu/), extracted from Chinese audiovisual bimodal speech database CAVSR-1.0, were pronounced by 10 subjects. The audio-only stimuli, audiovisual stimuli, and visual-only stimuli were recognized by 20 observers. The audio-only stimuli and audiovisual stimuli both were presented under 5 conditions: no noise, SNR 0 dB, −8 dB, −12 dB, and −16dB. The experimental result is studied and the following conclusions for Chinese speech are reached. Human beings can recognize visual-only stimuli rather well. The place of articulation determines the visual distinction. In noisy environment, audio information can remarkably be compensated by visual information and as a result the recognition performance is greatly improved.

## An accurate stress analysis model for angle-ply laminates with weakly bonded layers

### Acta Mechanica (2001-09-01) 150: 161-178 , September 01, 2001

### Summary

This paper presents a shear slip model suitable for the analysis of angle-ply composite laminated plates with weakly bonded layers. Being an extension of a relevant model that deals with perfectly bonded laminates, this study accounts further for the effects of shear slip by introducing appropriate interfacial bonding conditions. Accordingly, the model is based on a general five-degrees-of-freedom displacement field which includes certain general shape functions of the transverse co-ordinate. These are determined by means of appropriate three-dimensional elasticity considerations and include information relevant to the interfacial constitutive relations that account for weak bonding between layers. In dealing with weakly bonded angle-ply laminated plates in cylindrical bending, a closed form solution which is independent of the imposed boundary edge conditions is obtained. As a special case, the corresponding cross-ply laminated, weakly bonded plates solution is obtained by letting all the lamination angles involved to take 0° or 90° values. The high accuracy of the present model is shown by means of numerical comparisons with corresponding results based on an exact elasticity solution obtained for simply supported laminates. The effects of shear slip on the response of angle- and cross-ply laminated plates subjected to different edge boundary conditions are finally studied by means of corresponding numerical results that are obtained, presented and discussed.

## Deregulation of the Electricity Supply Industry

### Operation of Restructured Power Systems (2001-01-01): 1-27 , January 01, 2001

During the nineties decade, many electric utilities and power network companies world-wide have been forced to change their ways of doing business, from vertically integrated mechanisms to open market systems. The reasons have been many and have differed over regions and countries.

## Zero-Crossings of Random Processes with Application to Estimation and Detection

### Nonuniform Sampling (2001-01-01): 393-437 , January 01, 2001

The origin of Rice’s formula for the average level-crossing rate of a general class of random processes can be traced back to his 1936 notes on “Singing Transmission Lines,” [35]. For a stationary, ergodic, random process {*X(t)*} , -∞ < *t* < ∞, with sufficiently smooth sample paths, the average number of crossings about the level *u*, per unit time, is given by Rice’s formula [36]
(1)
$$
E\left[ {D_u } \right] = \int_{ - \infty }^\infty {\left| {x'} \right|p\left( {u,x'} \right)dx'}
$$
where *p*(*x*, *x’*) is the joint probability density of the *X(t)* and its mean-square derivative *X’*(*t*), and Du is the number of u level-crossings of {*X(t)*} for t in the unit interval [0,1]. Rice’s formula is quite general in nature, and as we shall see, has a simplified form when the process is Gaussian.

## Front Matter - Maschinenelemente

### Maschinenelemente (2001-01-01) , January 01, 2001

## Geometric tolerance verification using superquadrics

### IIE Transactions (2001-12-01) 33: 1109-1119 , December 01, 2001

Standards for Geometric Tolerance Verification such as ANSI Y14.5 have been in practice for many years. These standards were developed for hard gage technology, and provide little guidance for how tolerances should be verified for flexible technologies such as coordinate measuring machines or laser scanners. As a result, most techniques used in practice do not make use of proper statistical analysis of results. We present a statistically-based technique using jackknifing for geometric tolerance verification. The techniques are constructed for the superquadric parametric model representation, but are applicable to any parametric representation. The techniques are illustrated by examples, and a simulation study is provided for comparison.

## A Framework for Evaluating Commonality

### Design for Configuration (2001-01-01): 169-184 , January 01, 2001

The issue of product families and product platforms have gained an increased interest both in academia and industry. The concept of commonality is often mentioned within this framework. However, commonality may occur at different levels of abstraction, commonality of functions or parts, and at different levels of detail, commonality of modules or parts. This paper presents a literature survey of related research on product families, product structuring and measurements associated to those areas, in order to clarify what to consider when measuring commonality. The result is a framework for measuring commonality. Firstly, there is a need to clarify the kind of commonality measured, that is, on what architectural and structural level (level of abstraction and level of detail) is the commonality measured. Secondly, there is also a need to clarify what reference that is used for calculating the commonality. The concepts of product family commonality and product variant commonality are introduced to distinguish the reference for calculating the commonality.

## Classification of Endocardial Electrograms Using Adapted Wavelet Packets and Neural Networks

### Annals of Biomedical Engineering (2001-06-01) 29: 483-492 , June 01, 2001

The discrimination of ventricular tachycardias with 1:1 retrograde conduction from sinus tachycardia still remains a challenge for rate based algorithms commonly used in dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Morphology based analysis techniques for a classification of antegrade and retrograde atrial activation patterns can be used to cope with this problem. Here time-domain template matching techniques are known approaches. However, a time-domain representation of endocardial electrograms is not optimal for classification tasks as the dimensionality of the underlying signal space is high and features being irrelevant for a signal characterization are involved in the analysis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop an enhanced morphological analysis tool for a classification of antegrade and retrograde atrial activation by using a transform domain representation of endocardial electrograms. For this, we applied an adapted wavelet-packet decomposition to extract discriminating features in endocardial electrograms representing antegrade and retrograde activation patterns. Further, a feed-forward neural network was utilized to produce a classification based on the extracted information. In using our hybrid method, no false classification of the physiological and pathological cardiac state was made. It is concluded that the proposed classification scheme represents a highly efficient approach for a classification of antegrade and retrograde atrial activation. © *2001 Biomedical Engineering Society.*

PAC01: 8719Nn, 8719Hh, 8780Tq, 0705Mh