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## On the convergence of augmented Lagrangian methods for nonlinear semidefinite programming

### Journal of Global Optimization (2012-11-01) 54: 599-618 , November 01, 2012

In this paper, we present new convergence properties of the augmented Lagrangian method for nonlinear semidefinite programs (NSDP). Convergence to the approximately global solutions and optimal values of NSDP is first established for a basic augmented Lagrangian scheme under mild conditions, without requiring the boundedness condition of the multipliers. We then propose four modified augmented Lagrangian methods for NSDP based on different algorithmic strategies. We show that the same convergence of the proposed methods can be ensured under weaker conditions.

## A Multi-Stage Stochastic Integer Programming Approach for Capacity Expansion under Uncertainty

### Journal of Global Optimization (2003-05-01) 26: 3-24 , May 01, 2003

This paper addresses a multi-period investment model for capacity expansion in an uncertain environment. Using a scenario tree approach to model the evolution of uncertain demand and cost parameters, and fixed-charge cost functions to model the economies of scale in expansion costs, we develop a multi-stage stochastic integer programming formulation for the problem. A reformulation of the problem is proposed using variable disaggregation to exploit the lot-sizing substructure of the problem. The reformulation significantly reduces the LP relaxation gap of this large scale integer program. A heuristic scheme is presented to perturb the LP relaxation solutions to produce good quality integer solutions. Finally, we outline a branch and bound algorithm that makes use of the reformulation strategy as a lower bounding scheme, and the heuristic as an upper bounding scheme, to solve the problem to global optimality. Our preliminary computational results indicate that the proposed strategy has significant advantages over straightforward use of commercial solvers.

## A black-box scatter search for optimization problems with integer variables

### Journal of Global Optimization (2014-03-01) 58: 497-516 , March 01, 2014

The goal of this work is the development of a black-box solver based on the scatter search methodology. In particular, we seek a solver capable of obtaining high quality outcomes to optimization problems for which solutions are represented as a vector of integer values. We refer to these problems as integer optimization problems. We assume that the decision variables are bounded and that there may be constraints that require that the black-box evaluator is called in order to know whether they are satisfied. Problems of this type are common in operational research areas of applications such as telecommunications, project management, engineering design and the like.Our experimental testing includes 171 instances within four classes of problems taken from the literature. The experiments compare the performance of the proposed method with both the best context-specific procedures designed for each class of problem as well as context-independent commercial software. The experiments show that the proposed solution method competes well against commercial software and that can be competitive with specialized procedures in some problem classes.

## Solving the problem of packing equal and unequal circles in a circular container

### Journal of Global Optimization (2010-05-01) 47: 63-81 , May 01, 2010

In this paper we propose a Monotonic Basin Hopping approach and its population-based variant Population Basin Hopping to solve the problem of packing equal and unequal circles within a circular container with minimum radius. Extensive computational experiments have been performed both to analyze the problem at hand, and to choose in an appropriate way the parameter values for the proposed methods. Different improvements with respect to the best results reported in the literature have been detected.

## Global optimization using a synchronization of multiple search Points autonomously driven by a chaotic dynamic model

### Journal of Global Optimization (2008-06-01) 41: 219-244 , June 01, 2008

In the present paper, we propose a new multipoint type global optimization model using a chaotic dynamic model and a synchronization phenomenon in nonlinear dynamic systems for a continuously differentiable optimization problem. We first improve the Discrete Gradient Chaos Model (DGCM), which drives each search point’s autonomous movement, based on theoretical analysis. We then derive a new coupling structure called PD type coupling in order to obtain stable synchronization of all search points with the chaotic dynamic model in a discrete time system. Finally, we propose a new multipoint type global optimization model, in which each search point moves autonomously by improved DGCM and their trajectories are synchronized to elite search points by the PD type coupling model. The proposed model properly achieves diversification and intensification, which are reported to be important strategies for global optimization in the Meta-heuristics research field. Through application to proper benchmark problems [Liang et al. Novel composition test functions for numerical global optimization. In: Proceedings of Swarm Intelligence Symposium, 2005 (SIS 2005), pp. 68–75 (2005); Liang et al. Nat. Comput. *5*(1), 83–96, 2006] (in which the drawbacks of typical benchmark problems are improved) with 100 or 1000 variables, we confirm that the proposed model is more effective than other gradient-based methods.

## Gap Functions and Existence of Solutions to Generalized Vector Quasi-Equilibrium Problems

### Journal of Global Optimization (2006-03-01) 34: 427-440 , March 01, 2006

This paper deals with generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems. By virtue of a nonlinear scalarization function, the gap functions for two classes of generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems are obtained. Then, from an existence theorem for a generalized quasi-equilibrium problem and a minimax inequality, existence theorems for two classes of generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems are established.

## Stochastic techniques for global optimization: A survey of recent advances

### Journal of Global Optimization (1991-09-01) 1: 207-228 , September 01, 1991

In this paper stochastic algorithms for global optimization are reviewed. After a brief introduction on random-search techniques, a more detailed analysis is carried out on the application of simulated annealing to continuous global optimization. The aim of such an analysis is mainly that of presenting recent papers on the subject, which have received only scarce attention in the most recent published surveys. Finally a very brief presentation of clustering techniques is given.

## Cross-entropic learning of a machine for the decision in a partially observable universe

### Journal of Global Optimization (2007-04-01) 37: 541-555 , April 01, 2007

In this paper, we are interested in optimal decisions in a partially observable universe. Our approach is to directly approximate an optimal strategic tree depending on the observation. This approximation is made by means of a parameterized probabilistic law. A particular family of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), with input *and* output, is considered as a model of policy. A method for optimizing the parameters of these HMMs is proposed and applied. This optimization is based on the cross-entropic (CE) principle for rare events simulation developed by Rubinstein.

## On linear programs with linear complementarity constraints

### Journal of Global Optimization (2012-05-01) 53: 29-51 , May 01, 2012

The paper is a manifestation of the fundamental importance of the linear program with linear complementarity constraints (LPCC) in disjunctive and hierarchical programming as well as in some novel paradigms of mathematical programming. In addition to providing a unified framework for bilevel and inverse linear optimization, nonconvex piecewise linear programming, indefinite quadratic programs, quantile minimization, and *ℓ*_{0} minimization, the LPCC provides a gateway to a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints, which itself is an important class of constrained optimization problems that has broad applications. We describe several approaches for the global resolution of the LPCC, including a logical Benders approach that can be applied to problems that may be infeasible or unbounded.

## Nonlinear separation approach for the augmented Lagrangian in nonlinear semidefinite programming

### Journal of Global Optimization (2014-08-01) 59: 695-727 , August 01, 2014

This paper aims at showing that the class of augmented Lagrangian functions for nonlinear semidefinite programming problems can be derived, as a particular case, from a nonlinear separation scheme in the image space associated with the given problem. By means of the image space analysis, a global saddle point condition for the augmented Lagrangian function is investigated. It is shown that the existence of a saddle point is equivalent to a regular nonlinear separation of two suitable subsets of the image space. Without requiring the strict complementarity, it is proved that, under second order sufficiency conditions, the augmented Lagrangian function admits a local saddle point. The existence of global saddle points is then obtained under additional assumptions that do not require the compactness of the feasible set. Motivated by the result on global saddle points, we propose two modified primal-dual methods based on the augmented Lagrangian using different strategies and prove their convergence to a global solution and the optimal value of the original problem without requiring the boundedness condition of the multiplier sequence.