Scholars suggest that when it comes to the role owner-managers of SME play in terms of their companies’ internationalization, their attitudes have a major impact. However, little is known on how exactly they lead to international entrepreneurial behavior. This paper sheds light on this relationship by making use of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Besides attitudes, other cognitive factors are examined for relevance. The study is based on empirical data which have been gathered from owner-managers from Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, and Germany. The study yielded several interesting results. First, TPB clearly is applicable to investigate the cognitive antecedents of SME owner-managers’ international business activities. More specifically, the understanding of how decision-makers’ motivation to do business abroad is determined has been deepened. Second, some extensions proved to be useful in order to increase the approach’s predictive strength. From these results several conclusions can be drawn. Cognitive aspects are a promising starting point for increasing the knowledge on decision-making in the context of SME internationalization. Thus, the intersection of international entrepreneurship (IE) and entrepreneurial cognition deserves further attention. On the other hand, traits-based research seems to contribute little to a better understanding of IE. Policies supporting SME should be extended: pure resource-based approaches seem to be insufficient. Furthermore, entrepreneurship courses should reflect the relevance of attitudinal and other cognitive influences.