This paper has illustrated the idea that Keynesian market inefficiencies could imply some paradoxical effects of the transfer. Therefore, it has something common with the Brecher and Bhagwati  article on paradoxical effects in presence of internal inefficiencies. It is important to point out that our results on paradoxical effects are based on an asymmetry of markets: such an effect can only appear when only one of the two markets is Walrasian, and the other is Keynesian.
We have also found that any improvement for the transferor will presumably imply a deterioration for the transferee. The main result of this paper is therefore to cast doubts on the theoretical consistency of global Keynesian policy proposals. Even if a massive transfer towards LDCs were to improve the real income of developed countries through Keynesian mechanisms, it would also presumably have an adverse effect on LDCs.