This paper is intended to clarify some questions that are essential to the black struggle for liberation. Its major aim is to suggest a more effective framework for the analysis of the historical and contemporary situation of black people in the United States. We have seen how the concept we are calling internal colonialism fits what we know to be the concrete historical experiences of black people and the relationship of these experiences to Third World underdevelopment and European (including Euro-American) development66.
In discussing the newly emerging theory of internal colonialism we start from the assumption that theoretical knowledge, if it is to be useful, must reflect what is real in the world more deeply and thoroughly. It is therefore necessary for us to press beyond the point where the colonial analogy only looks and feels good to the essence of what really ails us in black communities across the United States. Ultimately, it is only when we meet with success in our continuing struggle to alter our present reality of oppression that we will really know if the theory of internal colonialism or any other knowledge was/is correct and of any merit. Since we dare not wait until then, it is to the important task of using what insights our analysis has already yielded and raising our struggle against oppression and exploitation to a higher level to which we should all turn.