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## GeoCLEF 2008: The CLEF 2008 Cross-Language Geographic Information Retrieval Track Overview

### Evaluating Systems for Multilingual and Multimodal Information Access (2009-01-01) 5706: 808-821 , January 01, 2009

GeoCLEF is an evaluation task running under the scope of the Cross Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF). The purpose of GeoCLEF is to test and evaluate cross-language geographic information retrieval (GIR). The GeoCLEF 2008 task presented twenty-five geographically challenging search topics for English, German and Portuguese. Eleven participants submitted 131 runs, based on a variety of approaches, including sample documents, named entity extraction and ontology based retrieval. The evaluation methodology and results are presented in the paper.

## Hardware Platforms for Electrostatic Tuning of Mems Gyroscope Using Nature-Inspired Computation

### Evolvable Hardware (2006-01-01): 209-222 , January 01, 2006

We propose a tuning method for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) gyroscopes based on evolutionary computation to increase the accuracy of MEMS gyroscopes through electrostatic tuning. The tuning method was tested for the second generation JPL/Boeing Post-resonator MEMS gyroscope using the measurement of the frequency response of the MEMS device in open-loop operation. We also report on the development and preliminary results of a hardware platform for integrated tuning based on “switched drive-angle” of MEMS gyroscopes whereby the same gyro is operated with its drive direction first at 0° and then at 90°. The control of this device is implemented through a digital design on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The hardware platform easily transitions to an embedded solution that allows for the miniaturization of the system to a single chip.

## Invariant theory of finite groups

### Algorithms in Invariant Theory (2008-01-01): 25-75 , January 01, 2008

Let C [x] denote the ring of polynomials with complex coefficients in *n* variables x = (x_{1},x_{2},...,*xn*). We are interested in studying polynomials which remain invariant under the action of a finite matrix group Γ ⊂ *GL*(C^{n}). The main result of this chapter is a collection of algorithms for finding a finite set *I*_{1}, *I*_{2},...,*I*_{m} of fundamental invariants which generate the invariant subring C[x]^{Γ}. These algorithms make use of the Molien series (Sect. 2.2) and the Cohen-Macaulay property (Sect. 2.3). In Sect. 2.4 we include a discussion of invariants of reflection groups, which is an important classical topic. Sections 2.6 and 2.7 are concerned with applications and special cases.

## On the Density of Maximal 1-Planar Graphs

### Graph Drawing (2013-01-01) 7704: 327-338 , January 01, 2013

A graph is 1-planar if it can be drawn in the plane such that each edge is crossed at most once. It is maximal 1-planar if the addition of any edge violates 1-planarity.

Maximal 1-planar graphs have at most 4*n* − 8 edges. We show that there are sparse maximal 1-planar graphs with only
$\frac{45}{17} n + \mathcal{O}(1)$
edges. With a fixed rotation system there are maximal 1-planar graphs with only
$\frac{7}{3} n + \mathcal{O}(1)$
edges. This is sparser than maximal planar graphs. There cannot be maximal 1-planar graphs with less than
$\frac{21}{10} n - \mathcal{O}(1)$
edges and less than
$\frac{28}{13} n - \mathcal{O}(1)$
edges with a fixed rotation system. Furthermore, we prove that a maximal 1-planar rotation system of a graph uniquely determines its 1-planar embedding.

## Relation Work in Collocated and Distributed Collaboration

### COOP 2014 - Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems, 27-30 May 2014, Nice (France) (2014-01-01): 87-101 , January 01, 2014

Creating social ties are important for collaborative work; however, in geographically distributed organizations e.g. global software development, making social ties requires extra work: Relation work. We find that characteristics of relation work as based upon shared history and experiences, emergent in personal and often humorous situations. Relation work is intertwined with other activities such as articulation work and it is rhythmic by following the work patterns of the participants. By comparing how relation work is conducted in collocated and geographically distributed settings we in this paper identify basic differences in relation work. Whereas collocated relation work is spontaneous, place-centric, and yet mobile, relation work in a distributed setting is semi-spontaneous, technology-mediated, and requires extra efforts.

## Application of Granularity Computing to Confirm Compliance with Non-Proliferation Treaty

### Data Mining, Rough Sets and Granular Computing (2002-01-01) 95: 308-338 , January 01, 2002

### Summary

Safeguards are essentially a technical means of verifying the fulfillment of political obligations undertaken by States and given a legal force in international agreements relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The main political objectives are: to assure the international community that States are complying with their non-proliferation and other peaceful undertakings; and to deter (a) the diversion of safeguarded nuclear materials to the production of nuclear explosives or for military purposes and (b) the misuse of safeguarded facilities with the aim of producing unsafeguarded nuclear material.

This chapter has been prepared based on the results of the project “Development of an Intelligent System for Monitoring and Evaluation of Peaceful Nuclear Activities (DISNA), Stage 1: Conceptual Model” [10]. The International Atomic Energy Agency, Department of Safeguards, Division of Concepts and Planning, Section for System Studies, in co-operation with Moscow State University, Department of Mechanics and Mathematics, has initiated this program. The goal of the system, structure and logic of the model, integration of the IAEA safeguards information sources, technical, technological and other factors which are used as evaluation criteria, structure of DISNA, mathematical foundations, technology of information processing and evaluation in DISNA is being discussed in this report.

Application of fuzzy logic concept in a real world situation, such as detection of clandestine nuclear programme to enhance safeguards effectiveness would be enormous The combination of

the systems approach using fuzzy logic;

the mandated “transparency and openness” environment ; and

the results of actual on site visits/inspections cued by “fuzzy logic” evaluations is likely to be quite powerful.

When fully developed, DISNA will provide a mechanism for use in monitoring and evaluation of all persistent information for current as well as future needs of the IAEA such as nuclear free zones, monitoring of treaties, etc.One of the theoretical base of DISNA is the theory of fuzzy information granulation [16, 17]. Taking into account a great importance of this problem for modern international community and very big interest of similar subject areas for application of granularity computing we decide to publish our result in this book. We hope that our ideas and results described here will be stimulate a new application of granularity computing techniques.

This work has been performed under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna. It is based on all information and knowledge available to the authors but does not necessarily reflect the policy expressed or Implied by the IAEA or its Member States

## 0–1 Laws for Fragments of Existential Second-Order Logic: A Survey

### Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2000 (2000-01-01) 1893: 84-98 , January 01, 2000

The probability of a property on the collection of all finite relational structures is the limit as *n →* ∞ of the fraction of structures with *n* elements satisfying the property, provided the limit exists. It is known that the 0-1 law holds for every property expressible in first-order logic, i.e., the probability of every such property exists and is either 0 or 1. Moreover, the associated decision problem for the probabilities is solvable.

In this survey, we consider fragments of existential second-order logic in which we restrict the patterns of first-order quantifiers. We focus on fragments in which the first-order part belongs to a prefix class. We show that the classifications of prefix classes of first-order logic with equality according to the solvability of the finite satisfiability problem and according to the 0-1 law for the corresponding Σ_{1}^{1} fragments are identical, but the classifications are different without equality.

## First-Order Algorithms for Optimization Problems with a Maximum Eigenvalue/Singular Value Cost and or Constraints

### Semi-Infinite Programming (2001-01-01) 57: 197-220 , January 01, 2001

Optimization problems with maximum eigenvalue or singular eigenvalue cost or constraints occur in the design of linear feedback systems, signal processing, and polynomial interpolation on a sphere. Since the maximum eigenvalue of a positive definite matrix *Q(x)* is given by max_{‖y‖=1}〈(y, Q(x)y〉, we see that such problems are, in fact, semi-infinite optimization problems. We will show that the quadratic structure of these problems can be exploited in constructing specialized first-order algorithms for their solution that do not require the discretization of the unit sphere or the use of outer approximations techniques.

## Nash Equilibria for Weakest Target Security Games with Heterogeneous Agents

### Game Theory for Networks (2012-01-01) 75: 444-458 , January 01, 2012

Motivated attackers cannot always be blocked or deterred. In the physical-world security context, examples include suicide bombers and sexual predators. In computer networks, zero-day exploits unpredictably threaten the information economy and end users. In this paper, we study the conflicting incentives of individuals to act in the light of such threats.

More specifically, in the weakest target game an attacker will *always* be able to compromise the agent (or agents) with the lowest protection level, but will leave all others unscathed. We find the game to exhibit a number of complex phenomena. It does not admit pure Nash equilibria, and when players are heterogeneous in some cases the game does not even admit mixed-strategy equilibria.

Most outcomes from the weakest-target game are far from ideal. In fact, payoffs for most players in any Nash equilibrium are far worse than in the game’s social optimum. However, under the rule of a social planner, average security investments are extremely low. The game thus leads to a conflict between pure economic interests, and common social norms that imply that higher levels of security are always desirable.

## The Verifiability of Two-Party Protocols

### Advances in Cryptology — EUROCRYPT’ 85 (1986-01-01) 219: 254-260 , January 01, 1986

Public key encryption as used in network communication has been investigated extensively. The main advantage of the techniques developed in this a rea is the potential for secure communication. However, while public key systems are often effective in preventing a passive saboteur from deciphering an intercepted message, protocols must be designed to be secure when dealing with saboteurs who can impersonate users or send copies of intercepted messages on the public channel. Dolev and Yao [3] have shown how informal arguments about protocols can lead to erroneous conclusions, and they have developed formal models of two-party protocols, both cascade protocols and name-stamp protocols. Recall that a protocol is a set of rules that specify what operators a pair of users, the sender and the receiver, need to apply in an exchange of messages for the purpose of transmitting a given plaintext message from the sender to the receiver. In terms of their models, Dolev and Yao developed an elegant characterization of cascade protocols that are secure, a characterization with conditions that can be checked by inspection.