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## Efficient Multi-bit Shifting Algorithm in Multiplicative Inversion Problems

### Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2005 (2005-01-01) 3481: 102-110 , January 01, 2005

This paper proposes an efficient inversion algorithm for Galois field GF(2^{n}) by using a modified multi-bit shifting method. It is well known that the efficiency of arithmetic algorithms depends on the basis and many foregoing papers use either polynomial or optimal normal basis. An inversion algorithm, which modifies a multi-bit shifting based on the Montgomery algorithm, is studied. Trinomials and AOPs (all-one polynomials) are tested to calculate the inverse. It is shown that the suggested inversion algorithm reduces the computation time 1 ~ 26% of the forgoing multi-bit shifting algorithm. The modified algorithm can be applied in various applications and is easy to implement.

## Refining the Undecidability Frontier of Hybrid Automata

### FSTTCS 2005: Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (2005-01-01) 3821: 261-272 , January 01, 2005

Reachability becomes undecidable in hybrid automata (HA) that can simulate a Turing (TM) or Minsky (MM) machine. Asarin and Schneider have shown that, between the decidable 2-dim Piecewise Constant Derivative (PCD) class and the undecidable 3-dim PCD class, there lies the “open” class 2-dim Hierarchical PCD (HPCD). This class was shown to be equivalent to the class of 1-dim Piecewise Affine Maps (PAM). In this paper, we first explore 2-dim HPCD’s proximity to decidability, by showing that they are equivalent to 2-dim PCDs with translational resets, and to HPCDs without resets. A hierarchy of intermediates also equivalent to the HPCD class is presented, revealing semblance to timed and initialized rectangular automata. We then explore the proximity to the undecidability frontier. We show that 2-dim HPCDs with zeno executions or integer-checks can simulate the 2-counter MM. We conclude by retreating HPCDs as PAMs, to derive a simple over-approximating algorithm for reachability. This also defines a decidable subclass 1-dim Onto PAM (oPAM). The novel non-trivial transformation of 2-dim HPCDs into “almost decidable” systems, is likely to pave the way for approximate reachability algorithms, and the characterization of decidable subclasses. It is hoped that these ideas eventually coalesce into a complete understanding of the reachability problem for the class 2-dim HPCD (1-dim PAM).

## Phoneme-Based Transliteration of Foreign Names for OOV Problem

### Natural Language Processing – IJCNLP 2004 (2005-01-01) 3248: 110-119 , January 01, 2005

###
*Abstract*

A proper noun dictionary is never complete rendering name translation from English to Chinese ineffective. One way to solve this problem is not to rely on a dictionary alone but to adopt automatic translation according to pronunciation similarities, i.e. to map phonemes comprising an English name to the phonetic representations of the corresponding Chinese name. This process is called transliteration. We present a statistical transliteration method. An efficient algorithm for aligning phoneme chunks is described. Unlike rule-based approaches, our method is data-driven. Compared to source-channel based statistical approaches, we adopt a direct transliteration model, i.e. the direction of probabilistic estimation conforms to the transliteration direction. We demonstrate comparable performance to source-channel based system.

## Service Portability Framework for Integrated Communication Environments

### Industrial Applications of Semantic Web (2005-01-01) 188: 317-340 , January 01, 2005

Future services must become intelligent to meet the high demands of pervasive computing environments. But until pervasive systems with their ambient intelligence supersede conventional mobile computing environments, it is quite a challenge to incorporate context-awareness and adaptability in services currently available. Such step would bring outstanding flexibility and ubiquity to contemporary mobile computing systems and semantically rich web environments. This paper presents a distinct vision of portable service provisioning which elaborates the concept of a portable service by proposing a dynamic reconfigurable service application design based on context-aware infrastructure support.

## Detecting is-a and part-of Relations in Heterogeneous Data Flow

### Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems (2005-01-01) 3681: 104-111 , January 01, 2005

The KIWI project developed a platform called *OntoExtractor* enabling semi-automatic extraction of ontologies. This platform is composed of different modules. A first module extract typical instances from a data flow. A second module propose some topological relations among the detected classes. A third module assist the knowledge engineer in transforming classes and relations tentatively proposed by the system in a standard knowledge representation format. This paper address the specific problem of detecting is-a and part-of relations among typical instances of a document base.

## New Exact Results and Bounds for Bipartite Crossing Numbers of Meshes

### Graph Drawing (2005-01-01) 3383: 360-370 , January 01, 2005

The bipartite crossing number of a bipartite graph is the minimum number of crossings of edges when the partitions are placed on two parallel lines and edges are drawn as straight line segments between the lines. We prove exact results, asymtotics and new upper bounds for the bipartite crossing numbers of 2-dimensional mesh graphs. We especially show that bcr(*P*_{6}× *P*_{n})=35*n*–47, for *n*≥ 7.

## Computing Optimal Solutions for the min 3-set covering Problem

### Algorithms and Computation (2005-01-01) 3827: 685-692 , January 01, 2005

We consider *min set covering* when the subsets are constrained to have maximum cardinality three. We propose an exact algorithm whose worst case complexity is bounded above by *O*^{*}(1.4492^{n}).

## Data Refinement for Synchronous System Specification and Construction

### Correct Hardware Design and Verification Methods (2005-01-01) 3725: 398-401 , January 01, 2005

*Design derivation*, a correct-by-construction system design method, specifies behavior with abstract datatypes. Refining these abstract datatypes is necessary for architectural decomposition. A new transformation primitive enables data refinement by generalizing term level injective homomorphisms to system equivalence.

## Implementation and Experimental Validation of the Population Learning Algorithm Applied to Solving QAP Instances

### Adaptive and Natural Computing Algorithms (2005-01-01): 198-201 , January 01, 2005

The paper proposes an implementation of the population learning algorithm designed to solve instances of the quadratic assignment problem. A short overview of the population- learning algorithm and a more detailed presentation of the proposed implementation is followed by the results of computational experiments carried. Particular attention is given to investigating performance characteristics and convergence of the PLA. Experiments have focused on identification of the probability distribution of solution time to a sub-optimal target value.

## A Cluster-Based Group Rekeying Algorithm in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

### Networking and Mobile Computing (2005-01-01) 3619: 344-353 , January 01, 2005

Many emerging mobile wireless applications depend upon secure group communication, in which secure and efficient group rekeying algorithm is very important. In this paper, a novel rekeying algorithm is proposed, which is based on the Distributed Group Key Management Framework and secure clustering. This algorithm involves two phases: (a) Virtual Backbone Management phase: a dynamic virtual backbone is formed below the routing layer such that each node in the network is either a part of the backbone or one hop away from at least one of the backbone nodes. (b) Group Rekeying phase: backbone nodes form group rekeying forest, in which each group rekeying tree can generate a new and same group-key. Because this algorithm generates group key with local secrete information, it is very fit for mobile ad hoc networks. Simulation shows that the algorithm performs better than many existing group key management protocols in terms of the success ratio and average delay of group rekeying.