A grammar formF defines via a so-calledinterpretation mechanism, a family of languages(F). In this paper we establish that for many grammar formsF, (the family of context-free languages) implies(F)=
RE (the family of recursively enumerable sets). We conjecture that this is also true in general. Because of this, it seems necessary to use restricted interpretations for non context-free grammar forms, a form giving then rise to a family We compare the obvious alternatives for restricting interpretations and focus attention on two promising alternatives,
st(F) and their combination
Q, st(F). Using st-interpretations, surprising families can be generated and strong normal form results can be obtained. Closure results and decidability results are also given. UnderQ, st-interpretation, it is possible to characterize a number of well-known families of languages between
RE, including the families of EOL, ETOL, matrix and scattered context languages.