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## Front Matter - Fundamentals of Digital Machine Computing

### Fundamentals of Digital Machine Computing (1966-01-01) , January 01, 1966

## The Principles of Logic in Computers

### Fundamentals of Digital Machine Computing (1966-01-01): 44-73 , January 01, 1966

Digital computers are essentially comprised of bi-stable electronic and electromechanical elements. The complexity of computers arises from the large number and the interconnection of these elementary components. But in its entirety the computer is still merely an aggregate of rather simple devices that assume either one of two states at any given time. Since the momentary conditions of the elements are represented by only two possible states the concepts of logic apply to the determination of the input-output relation of the elements.

## Principles and Examples of Programming

### Fundamentals of Digital Machine Computing (1966-01-01): 131-176 , January 01, 1966

The astonishing development of powerful general purpose digital computers has brought about a revaluation in the field of applied mathematics, the investigation of methods for the solution of mathematical problems on machines. These efforts are spurred by the recognition that so far the limitations on what computers can do come, in many cases, more from the weakness of the presentation of problems to the computer than from the intrinsic limitations of the machines.

## Binary Numbers and Codes and Their Machine Representation

### Fundamentals of Digital Machine Computing (1966-01-01): 16-43 , January 01, 1966

The binary number system is a member of the family of positional number systems, which are constructed according to common principles, and which are distinguished only by the number of digit symbols they use. This number is called the base, or radix of the number system.

## The Instruction Code of the Computer

### Fundamentals of Digital Machine Computing (1966-01-01): 110-130 , January 01, 1966

Considering the vast variety and complexity of the problems which are solved by the computer, it is surprising how few basic operations are required to accomplish these great computational feats. Actually everything which the machine does depends upon the elementary functions of moving, replacing, and combining information bits.

## Back Matter - Fundamentals of Digital Machine Computing

### Fundamentals of Digital Machine Computing (1966-01-01) , January 01, 1966

## Fundamentals of Digital Machine Computing

### Fundamentals of Digital Machine Computing (1966-01-01) , January 01, 1966

## The Role and Principal Attributes of Digital Computers

### Fundamentals of Digital Machine Computing (1966-01-01): 1-15 , January 01, 1966

Digital computers are, possibly more than any other machines, in a general way responsible for the astonishing technological advances and changes of our time. Other great inventions have produced breakthroughs in special fields, as the wheel, the screw or propeller, and jet propulsion has revolutionized man’s movement on land, water or air, and in space. However, the varied capabilities of digital computers ranging from routine filing and ordering to complicated computations and decision making effect and influence development and changes not only in a special field but over a broad range of human endeavors from simple clerical to highly complex engineering and scientific efforts. The forthcoming age of automation is primarily ushered in by the advent of the digital computers which have become of general interest to everyone who recognizes the vital importance of adequately processed and utilized information for efficient work and progress.

## Arithmetic Operations of the Machine

### Fundamentals of Digital Machine Computing (1966-01-01): 74-109 , January 01, 1966

The various arithmetic functions which the computer must accomplish have to be resolved into simple operations that the physical computer elements can perform. It will be seen that it is possible to reduce the arithmetic which the computer does to a few basic operations. The most important and the most widely used of these operations is the combination of two sets of information bits to form either the sum or the difference of the numbers. Using the logical characteristics which were introduced in the preceding chapter, the use of basic elements to perform the combining function will be analyzed.

## Automatic Programming

### Fundamentals of Digital Machine Computing (1966-01-01): 177-211 , January 01, 1966

In the preceding chapters it had been seen that the usefulness of digital computers is mainly based on their automatic operation. For a single instruction the computer automatically performs many steps of data moving and manipulation. The programmer can write a set of instructions in a symbolic form and the machine translates the symbols into numerical form upon which the computer can operate. What then is the distinction between an automatic program and a machine program which consists of a list of instructions? Actually the difference in automation between machine and automatic programs is only one of degree, while the decisive difference between the two kinds of programs is their orientation, the former being oriented toward the machine and the latter toward the problems to be solved. A program is machine oriented when it is written in the instruction code of a particular machine. The problem — or source-oriented program is written basically in a form which is independent of the machine on which the problem is to be solved. Therefore the different programs might be better distinguished as machine and source programs, instead of machine and automatic programs.