Eleven months of atmospheric turbidity measurements were made in Tozeur, Southern Tunisia, located at the northern edge of the Sahara. These measurements were done with a Linke-Feussner actinometer equipped with broad band Schott filters (OG1, RG2, RG8). These filters were chosen, as they have demonstrated a good stability with time. The lowest values of turbidity were found in winter, which is the rainy season for this area. In spring (April) the largest number of sand storms were observed, but the turbidity remained high for the whole summer. A mean Linke turbidity factor of 5.39 was derived, which is a value otherwise generally found only in industrial areas. Mean values of Ångström coefficients wereβ = 0.34 andα = 1.20.
Aerosol particles were also sampled with nucleopore membrane filters. The chemical analyses of the particles with an X-ray spectrometer showed that most of the smaller ones had a chemical composition similar to sand. Other, larger ones showed high amounts of Ca and Cl; these are believed to have originated in Chott Djerid, the largest dried-out salt lake in Tunisia, which is located 20 km southeast of Tozeur.
Model calculations of the radiative transfer for the solar spectrum were carried out, taking the turbidity measurements and ground truth measurements of albedo  into account. A perturbation experiment was carried out, changing turbidity and surface reflectivity. It was found that an increased surface reflectivity had a cooling effect at the surface, and a warming effect on the lowest kilometer of the atmosphere. Further, increases in turbidity resulted again in cooling at the surface, but with additional warming of the atmosphere. The combined increases of surface reflectivity and turbidity had a somewhat balancing effect as far as planetary albedo was concerned.