This paper presents the results of a study on the use of nanoindentation test to characterize the strain rate-dependent compressive response of asphalt concrete. Nanoindentation is now widely used for characterization and testing of composite as well as single-phase materials. Using a small piece of sample, nanoindentation tests can evaluate material behavior and structure in terms of the elasticity, time-dependent response, yield strength, damage, crack advance, debonding, and fatigues. In this study, a mixture of asphalt and calcium carbonate filler powder filling the intergranular void space of the asphalt concrete was characterized in terms of strain rate sensitivity at room temperature. The indentation hardness is observed to continuously decrease during constant indentation strain rates, but the hardness response clearly indicates positive strain rate dependency when compared at the same indentation depths. Following the constant strain rate tests, indentation creep response of the asphalt–filler mixture was tested at constant load conditions. The strain rate sensitivity values characterized from double logarithmic relationships between indentation hardness and strain rate during constant strain rate and constant load tests are comparable with that determined from uniaxial compression test of cylindrical asphalt concrete samples. The observed indentation size effect on hardness value was analyzed based on an existing size effect model. The size effect in the asphalt–filler mixture, which is stronger than that defined by the model, could be attributed to a plastically graded surface of asphalt–filler sample.