Light hydrocarbons (LHs) are one of the main petroleum fractions in crude oils, and carry much information regarding the genetic origin and alteration of crude oils. But secondary alterations—especially biodegradation—have a significant effect on the composition of LHs in crude oils. Because most of the LHs affected in oils underwent only slight biodegradation (rank 1 on the biodegradation scale), the variation of LHs can be used to describe more the refined features of biodegradation. Here, 23 crude oils from the Dawanqi Oilfield in the Tarim Basin, NW China, eleven of which have been biodegraded to different extents, were analyzed in order to investigate the effect of slight to minor biodegradation on C6–C7 LHs. The study results showed that biodegradation resulted in the prior depletion of straight-chained alkanes, followed by branched alkanes. In slight and minor biodegraded oils, such biodegradation scale could not sufficiently affect C6–C7 cycloalkanes. For branched C6–C7 alkanes, generally, monomethylalkanes are biodegraded earlier than dimethylalkanes and trimethylalkanes, which indicates that branched alkanes are more resistant to biodegradation, with the increase of substituted methyl groups on parent rings. The degree of alkylation is one of the primary controlling factors on the biodegradation of C6–C7 LHs. There is a particular case: although 2,2,3-trimethylbutane has a relative higher alkylation degree, 2,2-dimethylpentane is more resistant to biodegradation than 2,2,3-trimethylbutane. 2,2-Dimethylpentane is the most resistant to biodegradation in branched C6–C7 alkanes. Furthermore, the 2-methylpentane/3-methylpentane and 2-methylhexane/3-methylhexane ratios decreased steadily with increasing biodegradation, which implies that isomers of bilateral methyl groups are more prone to bacterial attack relative to mid-chain isomers. The position of the alkyls on the carbon skeleton is also one of the critical factors controlling the rate of biodegradation. With increasing biodegradation, Mango’s LH parameters K1 values decrease and K2 values increase, the values of n-heptane and isoheptane decrease, and the indices of methylcyclohexane and cyclohexane increase. LH parameters should be applied cautiously for the biodegraded oils. Because biodegraded samples belong to slight or minor biodegraded oils, the values of n-heptane and isoheptane from Dawanqi Oilfield can better reflect and determine the “Biodegraded” zone. When the heptane value is 0–21 and the isoheptane value is 0–2.6, the crude oil in Dawanqi Oilfield is defined as the “Biodegraded” zone.