The E. coli polA+ gene has been subcloned from a specialised λ transducing phage onto a low copy number plasmid. Plasmid-encoded DNA polymerase I was synthesised at 2 to 3 times the wild-type E. coli level, and was biochemically indistinguishable from chromosomally-encoded protein. It was able to counteract the radio sensitivity of polA1, polAex1, polAex2 and polA12 mutants, but no complementation of polA107 mutants occurred, even though the plasmid polA+ gene was expressed. S. cerevisiaears-1 or 2 μ replicative sequences were introduced into the polA+ plasmid. Transformation of yeast with these constructs increased total DNA polymerase levels 2–20 times, depending upon assay conditions. The additional activity was discriminated from yeast DNA polymerases by its ability to use low concentrations of substrate, by its resistance to chemical inhibition, and by co-electrophoresis with pure DNA polymerase I and its proteolytic fragments. The polA+ gene was expressed in yeast without the aid of yeast promotor sequences. However, deletion of cloned DNA more than 99 base pairs in front of the structural gene prevented expression in yeast but not in E. coli, indicating that the two organisms use different sequences for expression of the plasmid polA+ gene.