We compared the gene expression patterns of Lentinula edodes fresh fruiting bodies and fruiting bodies 3 days after harvest, by suppression subtractive hybridization, to characterize the physiologic changes that occur after harvest, such as gill browning and cell wall lysis of the fruiting body, which are responsible for the loss of food quality and value. We found increase of transcription levels of several enzyme encoding genes, such as, two phenol oxidases encoding genes (tyr tyrosinase, lcc4 laccase), and several cell wall degradation-related enzyme-encoding genes, such as mixed-linked glucanase (mlg1), chitinases (chi1, chi2), chitin deacetylase (chd1), and chitosanase (cho1), after harvesting. We isolated a putative transcription factor-encoding gene (L. edodes exp1) with high similarity to exp1 from Coprinopsis cinerea, which is involved in autolysis of the cap during spore diffusion. Transcription of L. edodes exp1 increased post-harvest, which suggests that its target genes are up-regulated after harvesting. These enzymes and the transcription factor may be involved in L. edodes fruiting body senescence.